区块链的发展与展望

blockchain

2018/09/02 发布于 技术 分类

区块链 

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1. ֻ 42 ज ֻ 4 ௹ 2016 ୍ 4 ᄅ ሱ‫߄׮‬࿐Б ACTA AUTOMATICA SINICA Vol. 42, No. 4 April, 2016 ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ‫ؿ‬ᅚགྷሑაᅚຬ ჯ Ⴇ 1, 2 ຦٦ᄁ 1, 3 ᅋ ေ ౵ॶ৽൞ෛሢбหл֩ඔሳࡆૡࠊл֥ರၭ௴ࠣ‫ط‬ᇯࡶྖఏ֥၂ᇕಆྍ֥ಀᇏྏ߄ࠎԤࡏ‫ܒ‬ა‫҃ٳ‬ൔ࠹ෘٓൔ, ଢ భၘࣜႄఏᆟ‫҆ک‬૊aࣁವࠏ‫ܒ‬a॓࠯ఒြ‫ބ‬ሧЧ൧ӆ֥ۚ؇ᇗ൪აܼܱٗᇿ. ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌऎႵಀᇏྏ߄aൈ྽ඔऌaุࠢົ ޹aॖщӱ‫ބ‬νಆॖྐ֩หׄ, หљൡ‫ࡹܒކ‬ॖщӱ֥ࠊл༢๤aࣁವ༢๤ମᇀ‫ܴޡ‬ഠ߶༢๤. Ч໓๙‫ܒࢳݖ‬౵ॶ৽֥‫ྏނ‬ေ ෍, ิԛਔ౵ॶ৽༢๤֥ࠎԤࡏ‫ܒ‬ଆ྘, བྷ༥ӂඍਔ౵ॶ৽ࠣაᆭཌྷܱ֥бหл֥ࠎЧჰ৘a࠯ඌaٚ‫م‬აႋႨགྷሑ, ษંਔ ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ֥৘୑aႋႨ‫ބ‬ၩၬ, ࢺകਔࠎႿ౵ॶ৽֥௜ྛഠ߶‫ؿ‬ᅚ౴൝, ᇁ৯Ⴟູໃটཌྷܱ࿹࣮ิ‫܂‬Ⴕၭ֥ᆷ֝აࢹ࡫. ܱ࡯Ս ౵ॶ৽, бหл, ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅ, ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ, ௜ྛഠ߶ ႄႨ۬ൔ ჯႧ, ຦٦ᄁ. ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ‫ؿ‬ᅚགྷሑაᅚຬ. ሱ‫߄׮‬࿐Б, 2016, 42(4): 481−494 DOI 10.16383/j.aas.2016.c160158 Blockchain:'>Blockchain: The State of the Art and Future Trends YUAN Yong1, 2 WANG Fei-Yue1, 3 Abstract Blockchain is an emerging decentralized architecture and distributed computing paradigm underlying Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, and has recently attracted intensive attention from governments, financial institutions, hightech enterprises, and the capital markets. Blockchain s key advantages include decentralization, time-series data, collective maintenance, programmability and security, and thus is particularly suitable for constructing a programmable monetary system, financial system, and even the macroscopic societal system. In this paper, we proposed a basic model of the blockchain system, discussed the principles, technologies, methods and applications of blockchain and the related Bitcoin systems. We also discussed the smart contract and its applications, and presented the future trends of blockchain-enabled paralleled societies. This paper is aimed at providing helpful guidance and reference for future research efforts. Key words Blockchain, Bitcoin, consensus mechanism, smart contract, paralleled society Citation Yuan Yong, Wang Fei-Yue. Blockchain:'>Blockchain: the state of the art and future trends. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2016, 42(4): 481−494 ౵ॶ৽൞ၛбหлູսі֥ඔሳࡆૡࠊлุ༢ ֥‫ྏނ‬ᆦӪ࠯ඌ. ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥‫ྏނ‬Ⴊ൝൞ಀᇏྏ ߄, ି‫ܔ‬๙‫ݖ‬ᄎႨඔऌࡆૡaൈࡗՄa‫҃ٳ‬ൔ‫ބ്܋‬ ࣜ࠶ࠗৣ֩൭‫؍‬, ᄝࢫׄ໭ླ޺ཌྷྐ಩֥‫҃ٳ‬ൔ༢ ๤ᇏൌགྷࠎႿಀᇏྏ߄ྐႨ֥ׄؓׄࢌၞaླྀ‫ט‬ა ླྀቔ, Ֆ‫ࢳູط‬थᇏྏ߄ࠏ‫௴ܒ‬ђթᄝ֥ۚӮЧa֮ ིੱ‫ބ‬ඔऌթԥ҂νಆ֩໙ีิ‫܂‬ਔࢳथٚσ. ෛ ሢбหл୍࣍ট֥ॹ෎‫ؿ‬ᅚა௴ࠣ, ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥ ൬۠ರ௹ 2016-02-22 ੣Ⴈರ௹ 2016-03-02 Manuscript received February 22, 2016; accepted March 2, 2016 ‫ ࡅ ݓ‬ሱ ಖ ॓ ࿐ ࠎ ࣁ (71472174, 71102117, 61533019, 71232006, 61233001) ሧᇹ Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (71472174, 71102117, 61533019, 71232006, 61233001) Ч໓ᄳ಩щ຾ ਟሷ০ Recommended by Associate Editor LIN Zong-Li 1. ᇏ‫॓ݓ‬࿐ჽሱ‫߄׮‬࿹࣮෮‫گ‬ᄖ༢๤ܵ৘ა॥ᇅ‫ࡅݓ‬ᇗׄൌဒ൩ Кࣘ 100190 2. ౝ֛ᇆିӁြ࠯ඌ࿹࣮ჽ ౝ֛ 266109 3. ‫ݓ‬ٝ॓࠯ն ࿐फ൙࠹ෘൌဒა௜ྛ༢๤࠯ඌᇏྏ Ӊ೬ 410073 1. The State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 2. Qingdao Academy of Intelligent Industries, Qingdao 266109 3. Research Center of Military Computational Experiments and Parallel System, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 ࿹࣮აႋႨ္ӯགྷԛЕ‫ؿ‬ൔᄹӉ෿൝, Фಪູ൞࠿ ն྘ࠏa۱ದ‫׈‬ଷa޺৳ຩa၍‫׮‬/ഠࢌຩ઎ᆭު࠹ ෘٓൔֻ֥໴Ց‫ڭ׀‬ൔԷྍ, ൞ದোྐႨࣉ߄ൎഈ ࠿࿓౔ྐႨa‫ࣁ݌‬උྐႨaနྛᆼлྐႨᆭުֻ֥ ඹ۱৚ӱЗ[1]. ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ൞༯၂սᄉ࠹ෘ֥Ԡྙ, Ⴕຬཞ޺৳ຩ၂ဢӞָᇗෑದোഠ߶ࠃ‫ྙ׮‬෿, ѩ ൌགྷՖଢభ֥ྐ༏޺৳ຩཟࡎᆴ޺৳ຩ֥ሇэ. ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥ॹ෎‫ؿ‬ᅚႄఏਔᆟ‫҆ک‬૊aࣁವ ࠏ‫ܒ‬a॓࠯ఒြ‫ބ‬ሧЧ൧ӆ֥ܼܱٗᇿ. 2016 ୍ 1 ᄅ, ႇ‫ݓ‬ᆟ‫҃ؿک‬౵ॶ৽ህี࿹࣮Бۡ[2], ࠒࠞ๷ྛ ౵ॶ৽ᄝࣁವ‫ބ‬ᆟ‫ک‬൙ༀᇏ֥ႋႨ; ᇏ‫ݓ‬ದ૶ၿྛ ᅺषඔሳࠊл࿹ษ߶ฐษҐႨ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ‫ྴྛؿ‬୅ ࠊл֥ॖྛྟ, ၛิۚࣁವࠃ‫ੱི֥׮‬aь০ྟ‫ބ‬๩ ૼ؇. ૅ‫ݓ‬ବථղक़Ⴟ 2015 ୍ 12 ᄅੱ༵๷ԛࠎႿ ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥ᆣಊࢌၞ௜෻ Linq, Ӯູࣁವᆣಊ൧ ӆಀᇏྏ߄౴൝֥ᇗေ৚ӱЗ; ֣౗‫ބ‬νႥ֩ህြ ബ࠹‫ڛ‬ༀ‫܄‬ඳཌྷ࠿ቆࡹ౵ॶ৽࿹‫ؿ‬๶ؒ, ᇁ৯Ⴟิ ശఃग़޼ബ࠹‫ڛ‬ༀᇉਈ. ࢩᆸ֞ 2016 ୍Ԛ, ሧЧ൧ ӆၘࣜཌྷ࠿๧ೆ 10 ၡૅჭၛ ࡆ෎౵ॶ৽ ਵთ֥ ‫ؿ‬
2. 482 ሱ‫߄׮‬࿐Б 42 ज ᅚ. ԚԷ‫܄‬ඳ R3CEV ࠎႿັೈᄉ‫ڛ‬ༀ௜෻ Azure ๷ԛ֥ BaaS (Blockchain as a service, ౵ॶ৽ࠧ‫ڛ‬ ༀ) ‫ڛ‬ༀ, ၘაૅ‫ݓ‬ၿྛa޽ఋၿྛ֩ಆ౯ 40 Ⴥࡅ ն྘ၿྛࠏ‫ܒ‬దඇ౵ॶ৽‫ކ‬ቔཛଢ, ᇁ৯Ⴟᇅ‫ק‬ၿ ྛြ֥౵ॶ৽ྛြѓሙაླྀၰ. ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌఏჷႿ 2008 ୍Ⴎ߄଀ູ “ᇏЧՒ” (Satoshi nakamoto) ֥࿐ᆀᄝૡ઒࿐Ⴏࡱቆ‫ؿ‬і֥ ‫ંྟࠎ׍‬໓uбหл: ၂ᇕׄؓׄ‫׈‬ሰགྷࣁ༢๤v[3], ଢభഉໃྙӮྛြ‫܄‬ಪ֥౵ॶ৽‫ק‬ၬ. ༮ၬটࢃ, ౵ ॶ৽൞၂ᇕοᅶൈࡗඨ྽ࡼඔऌ౵ॶၛ৽่֥ٚൔ ቆ‫ކ‬Ӯห‫ק‬ඔऌࢲ‫ܒ‬, ѩၛૡ઒࿐ٚൔЌᆣ֥҂ॖ ՞‫ބڿ‬҂ॖເᄯ֥ಀᇏྏ߄‫܋‬ཚሹᅬ (Decentralized shared ledger), ି‫ܔ‬νಆթԥࡥֆ֥aႵ༵ު ܱ༢֥aିᄝ༢๤ଽဒᆣ֥ඔऌ. ܼၬ֥౵ॶ৽࠯ ඌᄵ൞০Ⴈࡆૡ৽ൔ౵ॶࢲ‫ܒ‬টဒᆣაթԥඔऌa ০Ⴈ‫҃ٳ‬ൔࢫׄ‫്܋‬ෘ‫م‬টളӮ‫ބ‬۷ྍඔऌa০Ⴈ ሱ‫࢖߄׮‬Чս઒ (ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ) টщӱ‫ބ‬Ҡቔඔऌ֥၂ ᇕಆྍ֥ಀᇏྏ߄ࠎԤࡏ‫ܒ‬ა‫҃ٳ‬ൔ࠹ෘٓൔ. ౵ॶ৽ऎႵಀᇏྏ߄aൈ྽ඔऌaุࠢົ޹aॖ щӱ‫ބ‬νಆॖྐ֩หׄ. ൮༵൞ಀᇏྏ߄: ౵ॶ৽ ඔऌ֥ဒᆣa࠺ᅬaթԥaົ޹‫ބ‬Ԯൻ֩‫ݖ‬ӱन൞ࠎ Ⴟ‫҃ٳ‬ൔ༢๤ࢲ‫ܒ‬, ҐႨՂඔ࿐ٚ‫طم‬҂൞ᇏྏࠏ ‫ܒ‬টࡹ৫‫҃ٳ‬ൔࢫׄࡗ֥ྐ಩ܱ༢, Ֆ‫ྙط‬Ӯಀᇏ ྏ߄֥ॖྐ಩֥‫҃ٳ‬ൔ༢๤; ఃՑ൞ൈ྽ඔऌ: ౵ॶ ৽ҐႨջႵൈࡗՄ֥৽ൔ౵ॶࢲ‫ܒ‬թԥඔऌ, Ֆ‫ط‬ ູඔऌᄹࡆਔൈࡗົ؇, ऎႵ఼֥ࠞॖဒᆣྟ‫ބ‬ॖ ሔිྟ; ֻ೘൞ุࠢົ޹: ౵ॶ৽༢๤ҐႨห‫֥ࣜק‬ ࠶ࠗৣࠏᇅটЌᆣ‫҃ٳ‬ൔ༢๤ᇏ෮Ⴕࢫׄनॖҕა ඔऌ౵ॶ֥ဒᆣ‫ݖ‬ӱ (ೂбหл֥ “຋ঀ” ‫ݖ‬ӱ), ѩ ๙‫്܋ݖ‬ෘ‫م‬ট࿊ᄴห‫ྍࡼׄࢫ֥ק‬౵ॶเࡆ֞౵ ॶ৽; ֻඹ൞ॖщӱ: ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌॖิ‫܂‬ਲࠃ֥࢖Ч ս઒༢๤, ᆦӻႨ޼Էࡹ֥ۚࠩᇆି‫ކ‬ჿaࠊлࠇః ෰ಀᇏྏ߄ႋႨ. ২ೂ, ၛ෾٘ (Ethereum) ௜෻ࠧ ิ‫܂‬ਔ๭ਲປС֥࢖Чე࿽ၛ‫܂‬Ⴈ޼ট‫ࡹܒ‬಩‫ޅ‬ॖ ၛࣚಒ‫ק‬ၬ֥ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿࠇࢌၞো྘[4]; ቋު൞νಆ ॖྐ: ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌҐႨ٤ؓӫૡ઒࿐ჰ৘ؓඔऌࣉ ྛࡆૡ, ๝ൈࢹᇹ‫҃ٳ‬ൔ༢๤۲ࢫ֥ׄ‫۽‬ቔਈᆣૼ ֩‫്܋‬ෘ‫ྙم‬Ӯ఼֥նෘ৯টַპຓ҆‫ࠌ۾‬aЌᆣ ౵ॶ৽ඔऌ҂ॖ՞‫ބڿ‬҂ॖເᄯ, ၹ‫ط‬ऎႵࢠ֥ۚ νಆྟ. ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ൞ऎႵ௴ൡྟָ֥Ҫ࠯ඌॿࡏ, ॖ ၛູࣁವaࣜ࠶a॓࠯മᇀᆟᇍ֩۲ਵთջটധख़ э۪. οᅶଢభ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥‫ؿ‬ᅚઝ઎, ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ ࡼ߶ࣜ৥ၛॖщӱඔሳࡆૡࠊлุ༢ູᇶေหᆘ֥ ౵ॶ৽ 1.0 ଆൔaၛॖщӱࣁವ༢๤ູᇶေหᆘ֥ ౵ॶ৽ 2.0 ଆൔ‫ބ‬ၛॖщӱഠ߶ູᇶေหᆘ֥౵ॶ ৽ 3.0 ଆൔ[1]. ଢభ, ၂Ϯಪູ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌᆞԩႿ 2.0 ଆൔ֥Ԛ௹, ‫ܢ‬ಃᇙԔ‫ ބ‬P2P ࢹվ֩۲োࠎႿ ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥޺৳ຩࣁವႋႨཌྷ࠿Ⴄགྷ. ಖ‫ط‬, ഈ ඍଆൔൌ࠽ഈ൞௜ྛ‫ط‬٤ဆࣉൔ‫ؿ‬ᅚ֥, ౵ॶ৽ 1.0 ଆൔ֥ඔሳࡆૡࠊлุ༢ಯಖჹໃӮඃ, ए৖ఃಆ ౯ࠊл၂ุ߄֥჻ࣟൌ࠽ഈ۷ჹa۷঒଴. ଢభ, ౵ ॶ৽ਵთၘࣜӯགྷԛૼཁ֥࠯ඌ‫ބ‬ӁြԷྍ౺‫֥׮‬ ‫ؿ‬ᅚ෿൝, ཌྷܱ࿐ඌ࿹࣮࿸ᇗᇌުaታր۵ࣉ. ࢩᆸ ֞ 2016 ୍ 2 ᄅ, ၛຣٚඔऌᆩ്‫ڛ‬ༀ௜෻ູᇏ໓ ඔऌჷaၛ Web of Science ‫ ބ‬EI Village ູႇ໓ඔ ऌჷ֥໓ང࡟෬ཁൕ, ଢభ௉଀Ї‫࡯ܱݣ‬Ս “౵ॶ ৽/blockchain” ֥ࣇႵ 2 ௉ᇏ໓[5−6] ‫ ބ‬9 ௉ႇ໓໓ ང[6−14]. Ч໓༢๤ྟֹ൸৘ਔ౵ॶ৽֥ࠎЧჰ৘a ‫࠯ྏނ‬ඌa‫྘ׅ‬ႋႨ‫ބ‬གྷթ໙ี, ၛ௹ູໃট࿹࣮ิ ‫܂‬Ⴕၭ֥ఓ‫ؿ‬აࢹ࡫. Ч໓ቆᆮࢲ‫ູܒ‬: ֻ 1 ࢫ‫ۀ‬ඍ౵ॶ৽აбหл ֥‫ؿ‬ᅚൎࠣ‫ؽ‬ᆀ֥ܱ༢; ֻ 2 ࢫӂඍ౵ॶ৽֥ࠎԤ ࡏ‫ܒ‬ଆ྘ࠣఃܱ࡯࠯ඌ; ֻ 3 ࢫ‫ ֻބ‬4 ࢫ‫ٳ‬љ‫ۀ‬ေ ሹࢲਔ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥ႋႨӆࣟაགྷթ֥໙ี; ֻ 5 ࢫࢺകᇆି‫ކ‬ჿࠣఃᄝ౵ॶ৽ਵთ֥ႋႨགྷሑ; ֻ 6 ࢫᅚຬਔ౵ॶ৽౺‫֥׮‬௜ྛഠ߶‫ؿ‬ᅚ౴൝; ֻ 7 ࢫ ሹࢲЧ໓ଽಸ. 1 бหлა౵ॶ৽‫ۀ‬ඍ бหл൞ఘࣂູᆸቋູӮ‫֥ۿ‬౵ॶ৽ႋႨӆࣟ. ऌ౵ॶ৽ൌൈࡓ॥ຩᅟ Blockchain.info ๤࠹ཁൕ, ௜नૄ฿Ⴕჿ 7 500 ຣૅჭ֥ 120 000 гࢌၞФཿ ೆбหл౵ॶ৽, ଢభၘളӮӑ‫ ݖ‬40 ຣ۱౵ॶ[15]. ࡆૡࠊл൧ᆴ๤࠹ຩᅟ coinmarketcap.com ཁൕ, ࢩᆸ֞ 2016 ୍ 2 ᄅ, ಆ౯‫܋‬Ⴕ 675 ᇕࡆૡࠊл, ሹ ൧ᆴӑ‫ ݖ‬67 ၡૅჭ, ఃᇏбหл൧ᆴჿᅝ 86 %, ೋ ѯл‫ބ‬ၛ෾л‫ٳ‬љं‫ؽ‬a೘໊[16]. ଢభбหл‫܂‬ႋ ਈ (ࠧၘࣜ຋ԛ֥бหлඔਈ) ၘࣜӑ‫ ݖ‬1 500 ຣ઻, οᅶૄ઻бหл 389.50 ૅჭ֥གྷྛࡎ۬‫ܙ‬ෘఃሹ ൧ᆴၘӑ‫ ݖ‬59 ၡૅჭ, ᄝൗࢸ۲‫ ݓ‬2015 ୍ GDP ஆ଀ᇏᅝऌֻ 144 ໊ (੻֮Ⴟ୸ᇝ֥ଉ‫؟غ‬ຐ). ߐ ࿽ᆭ, ᄝીႵᆟ‫ބک‬ᇏနၿྛྐႨМ඀֥౦ঃ༯, ಀ ᇏྏ߄֥бหлၘࣜ၇ौෘ‫ྐم‬ႨԷᄯԛა୸ᇝཬ ‫ุݓ‬ਈཌྷ֥֒ಆ౯ྟࣜ࠶ุ. ყ࠹֞ 2027 ୍, ಆ౯ 10 % ֥ GDP ࡼ߶๙‫ݖ‬౵ॶ৽࠯ඌթԥ[17]. бหл౵ॶ৽ֻ֥၂۱౵ॶ (ӫູԷൗ౵ॶ) ֏ ളႿ 2009 ୍ 1 ᄅ 4 ರ, ႮԷ൓ದᇏЧՒӻႵ. ၂ᇛ ު, ᇏЧՒ‫ؿ‬ෂਔ 10 ۱бหл۳ૡ઒࿐ህࡅ‫ٯغݗ‬ ୄ, ྙӮਔбหлൎഈֻ၂Ցࢌၞ; 2010 ୍ 5 ᄅ, ‫ڍ‬ અ৚ղӱ྽ჴႨ 1 ຣбหл‫ܓ‬ઙࡎᆴູ 25 ૅჭ֥ ஼೓Ⴊ߲ಊ, Ֆ‫֏ط‬ളਔбหлֻ֥၂۱‫܄‬ᄍ߸ੱ. Վު, бหлࡎ۬ॹ෎ഈᅨ, ѩᄝ 2013 ୍ 11 ᄅԷ༯ ૄ઻бหлؑߐ 1 242 ૅჭ֥৥ൎۚᆴ, ӑ‫ݖ‬๝௹ૄ φඳ 1 241.98 ૅჭ֥ߛࣁࡎ۬. ऌ CoinDesk ‫ܙ‬ෘ, ଢభಆ౯ჿႵ 6 ຣഅࡅࢤ൳бหлࢌၞ, ఃᇏᇏ‫ݓ‬
3. 4௹ ჯႧ֩: ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ‫ؿ‬ᅚགྷሑაᅚຬ 483 ൞бหлࢌၞᄹӉቋູ࿡෎֥‫[ࡅݓ‬18]. бหлЧᇉഈ൞Ⴎ‫҃ٳ‬ൔຩ઎༢๤ളӮ֥ඔሳ ࠊл, ః‫ݖྛؿ‬ӱ҂၇ঠห‫֥ק‬ᇏྏ߄ࠏ‫ܒ‬, ‫ط‬൞၇ ঠႿ‫҃ٳ‬ൔຩ઎ࢫׄ‫܋‬๝ҕა၂ᇕӫູ‫۽‬ቔਈᆣૼ (Proof of work, PoW) ֥‫ݖ്܋‬ӱၛປӮбหлࢌ ၞ֥ဒᆣა࠺੣. PoW ‫ݖ്܋‬ӱ (෌ӫ຋ঀ, ૄ۱ ࢫׄӫູঀ‫ )۽‬๙ӈ൞۲ࢫׄ‫܊‬ངሱ֥࠭࠹ෘሧჷ টࣩᆚࢳथ၂۱଴؇ॖ‫׮‬෿‫ט‬ᆜ֥ඔ࿐໙ี, Ӯ‫ۿ‬ ࢳथ‫ھ‬ඔ࿐໙ี֥ঀ‫֤ࠆࡼ۽‬౵ॶ֥࠺ᅬಃ, ѩࡼ ֒భൈࡗ‫֥؍‬෮ႵбหлࢌၞյЇ࠺ೆ၂۱ྍ֥౵ ॶaοᅶൈࡗඨ྽৽ࢤ֞бหлᇶ৽ഈ. бหл༢ ๤๝ൈ߶‫ྛؿ‬၂‫ק‬ඔਈ֥бหлၛࢂৣ‫۽ঀھ‬, ѩ ࠗৣః෰ঀ‫࠿۽‬࿃‫܊‬ངෘ৯. бหл֥ੀ๙‫ݖ‬ӱ၇ ौૡ઒࿐ٚ‫م‬Ќᅰνಆ. ૄ၂Ցбหлࢌၞ‫ࣜ߶׻‬ ‫ݖ‬ห൹ෘ‫م‬ԩ৘‫ބ‬ಆุঀ‫۽‬ဒᆣު࠺ೆ౵ॶ৽, ๝ ൈॖၛ‫ڸ‬ջऎႵ၂‫ק‬ਲࠃྟ֥࢖Чս઒ (ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ) ၛൌགྷॖщӱ֥ሱ‫ࠊ߄׮‬лੀ๙. ႮՎॖ࡮, бหл ‫ބ‬౵ॶ৽༢๤၂ϮऎСೂ༯໴۱ܱ࡯ေ෍, ࠧ‫܋܄‬ ֥౵ॶ৽ᅬЧa‫҃ٳ‬ൔ֥ׄؓׄຩ઎༢๤aಀᇏྏ ߄֥‫്܋‬ෘ‫م‬aൡ؇֥ࣜ࠶ࠗৣࠏᇅၛࠣॖщӱ֥ ࢖Чս઒. ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌູбหл༢๤ࢳथਔඔሳࡆૡࠊл ਵთӉ௹ၛট෮сླ૫֥ؓਆ۱ᇗေ໙ี, ࠧචᇗ ᆦ‫ڱ‬໙ี‫ބ‬Ϩᅝ๖ࡼफ໙ี[19]. චᇗᆦ‫ڱ‬໙ีႻӫ ູ “ච޽”, ࠧ০Ⴈࠊл֥ඔሳหྟਆՑࠇ‫؟‬Ց൐Ⴈ “๝၂гఫ” ປӮᆦ‫ڱ‬. Ԯ๤ࣁವ‫ࠊބ‬лุ༢ᇏ, གྷ ࣁ (‫م‬л) ၹ൞໾৘ൌุ, ି‫ܔ‬ሱಖֹх૧චᇗᆦ‫;ڱ‬ ః෰ඔሳྙൔ֥ࠊлᄵླေॖྐֻ֥೘ٚᇏྏࠏ‫ܒ‬ (ೂၿྛ) টЌᆣ. ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥‫܊‬ང൞ᄝીႵֻ೘ ٚࠏ‫֥ܒ‬౦ঃ༯, ๙‫҃ٳݖ‬ൔࢫ֥ׄဒᆣ‫ࠏ്܋ބ‬ ᇅࢳथਔಀᇏྏ߄༢๤֥චᇗᆦ‫ڱ‬໙ี, ᄝྐ༏Ԯ ൻ֥‫ݖ‬ӱ๝ൈປӮਔࡎᆴሇ၍. Ϩᅝ๖ࡼफ໙ี൞ ‫҃ٳ‬ൔ༢๤ࢌ޺‫ݖ‬ӱ௴ђ૫ਢ֥଴ี, ࠧᄝಌഒॖ ྐ಩֥ᇏနࢫ֥ׄ౦ঃ༯, ‫҃ٳ‬ൔࢫׄೂ‫ޅ‬ղӮ‫܋‬ ്‫ࡹބ‬৫޺ྐ[20]. ౵ॶ৽๙‫ݖ‬ඔሳࡆૡ࠯ඌ‫҃ٳބ‬ ൔ‫്܋‬ෘ‫م‬, ൌགྷਔᄝ໭ླྐ಩ֆ۱ࢫ֥ׄ౦ঃ༯ ‫ࡹܒ‬၂۱ಀᇏྏ߄֥ॖྐ಩༢๤. აԮ๤ᇏྏࠏ‫ܒ‬ (ೂᇏနၿྛ) ֥ྐႨМ඀ࠏᇅ҂๝֥൞, бหл౵ ॶ৽ྙӮ֥൞ೈࡱ‫ק‬ၬ֥ྐႨ, ᆃѓᆽሢᇏྏ߄֥ ‫ྐࡅݓ‬Ⴈཟಀᇏྏ߄֥ෘ‫ྐم‬Ⴈ֥۴Чྟэ۪. бหл௝ࢹః༵‫ؿ‬Ⴊ൝, ଢభၘࣜྙӮุ༢ປ С֥‫ྛؿۂݤ‬aੀ๙‫ࣁބ‬ವစള൧ӆ֥ള෿ಁაӁ ြ৽ (ೂ๭ 1 ෮ൕ), ᆃ္൞ఃӉ௹ᅝऌधն‫؟‬ඔඔ ሳࡆૡࠊл൧ӆ‫֥حٺ‬ᇶေჰၹ. бหл֥षჷห ྟ་ႄਔնਈष‫ؿ‬ᆀӻ࿃ྟֹ‫܊‬ངఃԷྍ࠯ඌaٚ ‫ࠏބم‬ᇅ; бหл۲ຩ઎ࢫׄ (ঀ‫܂ิ )۽‬ෘ৯ၛЌ ᆣбหл֥໗‫ބ്܋ק‬νಆྟ, ఃෘ৯ն‫؟‬টሱႿ ഡСഅཧ൲֥ህ૊ႨႿ PoW ‫്܋‬ෘ‫֥م‬ህြഡС (ঀࠏ). бหлຩ઎ູૄ۱ྍ‫ؿ‬གྷ֥౵ॶ‫ྛؿ‬၂‫ק‬ඔ ਈ֥бหлၛࢂৣঀ‫۽‬, ҆‫۽ঀٳ‬ॖି߶ཌྷ޺‫ކ‬ቔ ࡹ৫൬ၭ‫܋‬ཚ֥ঀӽ, ၛь߸ࠢෘ৯টิۚࠆ֤б หл֥‫ੱۀ‬. бหлࣜ‫ࣉྛؿ‬ೆੀ๙ߌࢫު, ӻлದ ॖၛ๙‫ݖ‬ห‫֥ק‬ೈࡱ௜෻ (ೂбหлఫЇ) ཟഅࡅᆦ ‫ڱ‬бหлট‫ܓ‬ઙഅ௖ࠇ‫ڛ‬ༀ, ᆃุགྷਔбหл֥ࠊ лඋྟ; ๝ൈႮႿбหлࡎ֥۬ᅨ‫ࠏי‬ᇅ൐ఃປಆ ऎСࣁವစള௖֥෮Ⴕඋྟ, ၹՎԛགྷਔбหлࢌ ၞ௜෻ၛٚьӻлದ๧ሧࠇᆀ๧ࠏбหл. ᄝੀ๙ ߌࢫ‫ࣁބ‬ವ൧ӆᇏ, ૄ၂гбหлࢌၞ‫߶׻‬Ⴎбห лຩ઎֥ಆุঀ‫۽‬ဒᆣѩ࠺ೆ౵ॶ৽. бหл൞౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ‫ֻ֥ିڮ‬၂۱ “೪൭ࠩ” ႋႨ, ఘࣂູᆸ౵ॶ৽֥‫࠯ྏނ‬ඌ‫ބ‬ದҌሧჷಯն ‫؟‬ᄝбหл࿹‫ؿ‬ਵთ. ಖ‫ط‬, ౵ॶ৽ቔູໃটྍ၂ս ָ֥ҪࠎԤ࠯ඌ, ఃႋႨٓԐ൝с߶ӑᄀඔሳࡆૡ ࠊл‫ط‬࿼ഥ֞ࣁವaࣜ࠶a॓࠯‫ބ‬ᆟᇍ֩ః෰ਵთ. ๭ 1 бหлള෿ಁ Fig. 1 The Bitcoin ecosystem
4. 484 ሱ‫߄׮‬࿐Б 42 ज бหл֥གྷႵ࠯ඌaଆൔ‫ࠏބ‬ᇅ, ࡼ߶ؓ౵ॶ৽ᄝྍ ႋႨਵთ֥‫ؿ‬ᅚิ‫܂‬Ⴕၭ֥ࢹ࡫, ‫ྍط‬ਵთ֥౵ॶ ৽Էྍ္൝сّ‫ݖ‬ট՜ࣉࢳथбหл༢๤གྷթ֥໙ ี. ၹՎ, бหл‫ބ‬౵ॶ৽࠯ඌթᄝሢླྀ๝ࣉ߄a‫ބ‬ ཾ‫܋‬ള‫ط‬٤ཌྷ޺ࣩᆚ֥ਅྟّঌܱ༢. 2 ౵ॶ৽֥ࠎԤଆ྘აܱ࡯࠯ඌ Чࢫࡼࢲ‫ކ‬бหл༢๤֥࠯ඌაႋႨགྷሑ, ӂ ඍ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥ࠎԤଆ྘aࠎЧჰ৘‫࠯࡯ܱބ‬ඌ, ၛ ࠣ౵ॶ৽ᄝбหл༢๤ᆭຓ֥೏‫ۄ‬Էྍଆൔ. གྷթ ֥ః෰౵ॶ৽ႋႨն‫׻؟‬აбหлোර, ࣇᄝଖུ ห‫ࠇ؟ࠇࢫߌ֥ק‬ഒֹҐႨбหлଆൔ֥эᇕ. ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥ࠎԤࡏ‫ܒ‬ଆ྘ೂ๭ 2 ෮ൕ. ၂Ϯ ඪট, ౵ॶ৽༢๤ႮඔऌҪaຩ઎Ҫa‫്܋‬Ҫaࠗৣ Ҫa‫ކ‬ჿҪ‫ބ‬ႋႨҪቆӮ. ఃᇏ, ඔऌҪ‫ٿ‬ልਔָҪ ඔऌ౵ॶၛࠣཌྷܱ֥ඔऌࡆૡ‫ބ‬ൈࡗՄ֩࠯ඌ; ຩ ઎ҪᄵЇও‫҃ٳ‬ൔቆຩࠏᇅaඔऌԮѬࠏᇅ‫ބ‬ඔऌ ဒᆣࠏᇅ֩; ‫്܋‬Ҫᇶေ‫ٿ‬ልຩ઎ࢫ֥ׄ۲ো‫്܋‬ ෘ‫ৣࠗ ;م‬Ҫࡼࣜ࠶ၹ෍ࠢӮ֞౵ॶ৽࠯ඌุ༢ᇏ ট, ᇶေЇওࣜ࠶ࠗৣ֥‫ࠏྛؿ‬ᇅ‫ٳބ‬஥ࠏᇅ֩; ‫ކ‬ ჿҪᇶေ‫ٿ‬ል۲ো࢖Чaෘ‫ބم‬ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ, ൞౵ॶ৽ ॖщӱหྟ֥ࠎԤ; ႋႨҪᄵ‫ٿ‬ልਔ౵ॶ৽֥۲ᇕ ႋႨӆࣟ‫ބ‬σ২. ‫ھ‬ଆ྘ᇏ, ࠎႿൈࡗՄ֥৽ൔ౵ॶ ࢲ‫ܒ‬a‫҃ٳ‬ൔࢫ֥ׄ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅaࠎႿ‫്܋‬ෘ৯֥ࣜ ࠶ࠗৣ‫ބ‬ਲࠃॖщӱ֥ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ൞౵ॶ৽࠯ඌቋऎ սіྟ֥Էྍׄ. ๭ 2 ౵ॶ৽ࠎԤࡏ‫ܒ‬ଆ྘ Fig. 2 A basic framework of blockchain 2.1 ඔऌҪ ༮ၬ֥౵ॶ৽ࠧ൞ಀᇏྏ߄༢๤۲ࢫׄ‫܋‬ཚ֥ ඔऌᅬЧ. ૄ۱‫҃ٳ‬ൔࢫׄ‫׻‬ॖၛ๙‫ݖ‬ห‫ݗ֥ק‬༐ ෘ‫ ބم‬Merkle ඎඔऌࢲ‫ܒ‬, ࡼ၂‫؍‬ൈࡗଽࢤ൬֥֞ ࢌၞඔऌ‫ބ‬ս઒‫ٿ‬ል֞၂۱ջႵൈࡗՄ֥ඔऌ౵ॶ ᇏ, ѩ৽ࢤ֞֒భቋӉ֥ᇶ౵ॶ৽ഈ, ྙӮቋྍ֥౵ ॶ. ‫ݖھ‬ӱടࠣ౵ॶa৽ൔࢲ‫ܒ‬a‫ݗ‬༐ෘ‫م‬aMerkle ඎ‫ބ‬ൈࡗՄ֩࠯ඌေ෍. ඔऌ౵ॶ: ೂ๭ 3 ෮ൕ, ૄ۱ඔऌ౵ॶ၂ϮЇ ‫ݣ‬౵ॶ๨ (Header) ‫ބ‬౵ॶุ (Body) ਆ҆‫ٳ‬. ౵ ॶ๨‫ٿ‬ልਔ֒భϱЧ‫( ݼ‬Version)aభ၂౵ॶֹᆶ (Prev-block)a֒భ౵ॶ֥ଢѓ‫ݗ‬༐ᆴ (Bits)a֒భ ౵ॶ PoW ‫ݖ്܋‬ӱ֥ࢳෛࠏඔ (Nonce)aMerkle ۴ (Merkle-root) ၛࠣൈࡗՄ (Timestamp) ֩ྐ ༏[21]. бหлຩ઎ॖၛ‫׮‬෿‫ט‬ᆜ PoW ‫ݖ്܋‬ӱ֥ ଴؇ᆴ, ቋ༵ᅳ֞ᆞಒ֥ࢳෛࠏඔ Nonce ѩࣜ‫ݖ‬ಆ ุঀ‫۽‬ဒᆣ֥ঀ‫֤֒ࠆ߶ࡼ۽‬భ౵ॶ֥࠺ᅬಃ. ౵ ॶุᄵЇও֒భ౵ॶ֥ࢌၞඔਈၛࠣࣜ‫ݖ‬ဒᆣ֥a ౵ॶԷࡹ‫ݖ‬ӱᇏളӮ֥෮Ⴕࢌၞ࠺੣. ᆃུ࠺੣๙ ‫ ݖ‬Merkle ඎ֥‫ݗ‬༐‫ݖ‬ӱളӮື၂֥ Merkle ۴ѩ࠺ ೆ౵ॶ๨. ๭ 3 ౵ॶࢲ‫ܒ‬ Fig. 3 The structure of blocks ৽ൔࢲ‫ܒ‬: ౼֤࠺ᅬಃ֥ঀ‫֒ࡼ۽‬భ౵ॶ৽ࢤ ֞భ၂౵ॶ, ྙӮቋྍ֥౵ॶᇶ৽. ۲۱౵ॶ၇Ցߌ ߌཌྷࢤ, ྙӮՖԷൗ౵ॶ֞֒భ౵ॶ֥၂่ቋӉᇶ ৽, Ֆ‫࠺ط‬੣ਔ౵ॶ৽ඔऌ֥ປᆜ৥ൎ, ି‫܂ิܔ‬౵ ॶ৽ඔऌ֥ිჷ‫ିۿ໊קބ‬, ಩ၩඔऌ‫׻‬ॖၛ๙‫ݖ‬ Վ৽ൔࢲ‫ܒ‬ඨฬଃ‫ܨ‬aሔЧිჷ. ླေඪૼ֥൞, ೂ ‫ݔ‬؋ൈࡗଽႵਆ۱ঀ‫۽‬๝ൈ “຋ԛ” ਆ۱ྍ֥౵ॶ ࡆၛ৽ࢤ֥߅, ౵ॶᇶ৽ॖି߶ԛགྷᄠൈ֥ “‫ٳ‬ҭ” གྷའ, ఃࢳथٚ‫م‬൞ჿ‫۽ঀק‬ሹ൞࿊ᄴ࿼Ӊ৆࠹‫۽‬
5. 4௹ ჯႧ֩: ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ‫ؿ‬ᅚགྷሑაᅚຬ 485 ቔਈᆣૼቋն֥౵ॶ৽. ၹՎ, ֒ᇶ৽‫ٳ‬ҭު, ު࿃ ౵ॶ֥ঀ‫ࡼ۽‬๙‫࠹ݖ‬ෘ‫ބ‬бࢠ, ࡼః౵ॶ৽ࢤ֞֒ భ৆࠹‫۽‬ቔਈᆣૼቋն߄֥С࿊৽ഈ, ྙӮ۷Ӊ֥ ྍᇶ৽, Ֆ‫ࢳط‬थ‫ٳ‬ҭ໙ี[19]. ൈࡗՄ: ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌေ౰ࠆ֤࠺ᅬಃ֥ࢫׄс ྶᄝ֒భඔऌ౵ॶ๨ᇏࡆ‫ۂ‬ൈࡗՄ, іૼ౵ॶඔऌ ֥ཿೆൈࡗ. ၹՎ, ᇶ৽ഈ۲౵ॶ൞οᅶൈࡗඨ྽၇ Ցஆਙ֥. ൈࡗՄ࠯ඌЧദѩ҂‫گ‬ᄖ, ֌ఃᄝ౵ॶ ৽࠯ඌᇏ֥ႋႨ൞ऎႵᇗေၩၬ֥Էྍ. ൈࡗՄॖ ၛቔູ౵ॶඔऌ֥թᄝྟᆣૼ (Proof of existence), ႵᇹႿྙӮ҂ॖ՞‫ބڿ‬҂ॖເᄯ֥౵ॶ৽ඔऌ९, Ֆ‫ູط‬౵ॶ৽ႋႨႿ‫܄‬ᆣaᆩ്ӁಃᇿҨ֩ൈࡗૹ ‫֥ۋ‬ਵთ‫ק׍‬ਔࠎԤ. ۷ູᇗေ֥൞, ൈࡗՄູໃট ࠎႿ౵ॶ৽֥޺৳ຩ‫ބ‬նඔऌᄹࡆਔൈࡗົ؇, ൐ ֤๙‫ݖ‬౵ॶඔऌ‫ބ‬ൈࡗՄটᇗགྷ৥ൎӮູॖି. ‫ݗ‬༐‫ݦ‬ඔ: ౵ॶ৽๙ӈѩ҂ᆰࢤЌթჰ൓ඔऌ ࠇࢌၞ࠺੣, ‫ط‬൞Ќթః‫ݗ‬༐‫ݦ‬ඔᆴ, ࠧࡼჰ൓ඔऌ щ઒ູห‫ק‬Ӊ؇֥Ⴎඔሳ‫ބ‬ሳଛቆӮ֥ሳ‫ژ‬Աު࠺ ೆ౵ॶ৽. ‫ݗ‬༐‫ݦ‬ඔ (္ӫ೛ਙ‫ݦ‬ඔ) ऎႵᇭ‫؟‬Ⴊਅ หׄ, ၹ‫ط‬หљൡ‫ކ‬ႨႿթԥ౵ॶ৽ඔऌ. ২ೂ, ๙ ‫ݗݖ‬༐ൻԛࠫެ҂ିّ๷ൻೆᆴ (ֆཟྟ), ҂๝Ӊ ؇ൻೆ֥‫ݗ‬༐‫ݖ‬ӱཨ‫ݻ‬նჿཌྷ๝֥ൈࡗ (‫ק‬ൈྟ) ౏ Ӂള‫קܥ‬Ӊ؇֥ൻԛ (‫ק‬Ӊྟ), ࠧ൐ൻೆࣇཌྷҵ၂ ۱ሳࢫ္߶Ӂളཁᇷ҂๝֥ൻԛᆴ (ෛࠏྟ) ֩. б หл౵ॶ৽๙ӈҐႨච SHA256 ‫ݗ‬༐‫ݦ‬ඔ, ࠧࡼ಩ ၩӉ؇֥ჰ൓ඔऌࣜ‫ݖ‬ਆՑ SHA256 ‫ݗ‬༐ᄎෘުሇ ߐູӉ؇ູ 256 ໊ (32 ሳࢫ) ֥‫ࣉؽ‬ᇅඔሳট๤၂ թԥ‫്ބ‬љ. Ԣഈඍหׄຓ, SHA256 ෘ‫ߎم‬ऎႵऍ ն֥೛ਙॢࡗ (2256) ‫ॆބ‬ஷሏ (х૧҂๝ൻೆᆴӁ ളཌྷ๝‫ݗ‬༐ᆴ) ֩หྟ, ॖડቀбหл֥಩‫ޅ‬ཌྷܱѓ ࠺ླေ‫ط‬҂߶ԛགྷԊ๬. Merkle ඎ: Merkle ඎ൞౵ॶ৽֥ᇗေඔऌࢲ ‫ܒ‬, ఃቔႨ൞ॹ෎݂ବ‫཮ބ‬ဒ౵ॶඔऌ֥թᄝྟ ‫ބ‬ປᆜྟ. ೂ๭ 3 ෮ൕ, Merkle ඎ๙ӈЇ‫ݣ‬౵ॶ ָุ֥Ҫ (ࢌၞ) ඔऌ९, ౵ॶ๨֥۴‫ݗ‬༐ᆴ (ࠧ Merkle ۴) ၛࠣ෮ႵခָҪ౵ॶඔऌ֞۴‫ݗ‬༐֥‫ٳ‬ ᆦ. Merkle ඎᄎෘ‫ݖ‬ӱ၂Ϯ൞ࡼ౵ॶุ֥ඔऌࣉ ྛ‫ٳ‬ቆ‫ݗ‬༐, ѩࡼളӮ֥ྍ‫ݗ‬༐ᆴҬೆ֞ Merkle ඎ ᇏ, ೂՎ‫݂־‬ᆰ֞ᆺഺቋު၂۱۴‫ݗ‬༐ᆴѩ࠺ູ౵ ॶ๨֥ Merkle ۴. ቋӈ࡮֥ Merkle ඎ൞бหлҐ Ⴈ֥‫ؽ‬ҭ Merkle ඎ, ఃૄ۱‫ݗ‬༐ࢫׄሹ൞Ї‫ݣ‬ਆ۱ ཌྷਣ֥ඔऌॶࠇః‫ݗ‬༐ᆴ[22], ః෰эᇕᄵЇওၛ෾ ֥٘ Merkle patricia tree ֩[4]. Merkle ඎႵᇭ‫؟‬ Ⴊׄ: ൮༵൞ࠞնֹิۚਔ౵ॶ৽֥ᄎྛིੱ‫ބ‬ॖ ঔᅚྟ, ൐֤౵ॶ๨ᆺླЇ‫ݣ‬۴‫ݗ‬༐ᆴ‫ط‬҂с‫ٿ‬ል ෮ႵָҪඔऌ, ᆃ൐֤‫ݗ‬༐ᄎෘॖၛֹིۚᄎྛᄝ ᇆି൭ࠏമᇀ໾৳ຩഡСഈ; ఃՑ൞ Merkle ඎॖᆦ ӻ “ࡥ߄ᆦ‫ڱ‬ဒᆣ” ླྀၰ, ࠧᄝ҂ᄎྛປᆜ౵ॶ৽ຩ ઎ࢫ֥ׄ౦ঃ༯, ္ି‫ࢌ( ؓܔ‬ၞ) ඔऌࣉྛ࡟ဒ[3]. ২ೂ, ູဒᆣ๭ 3 ᇏࢌၞ 6, ၂۱ીႵ༯ᄛປᆜ౵ॶ ৽ඔऌ֥ग़޼؊ॖၛ๙‫ݖ‬ཟః෰ࢫׄ෬ေЇওՖࢌ ၞ 6 ‫ݗ‬༐ᆴခ Merkle ඎഈිᇀ౵ॶ๨۴‫ݗ‬༐ԩ֥ ‫ݗ‬༐྽ਙ (ࠧ‫ݗ‬༐ࢫׄ 6, 5, 56, 78, 5 678, 1 234) ট ॹ෎ಒಪࢌၞ֥թᄝྟ‫ބ‬ᆞಒྟ. ၂Ϯඪট, ᄝ N ۱ࢌၞቆӮ֥౵ॶุᇏಒಪ಩၂ࢌၞ֥ෘ‫گم‬ᄖ؇ ࣇູ log2N . ᆃࡼࠞնֹࢆ֮౵ॶ৽ᄎྛ෮ླ֥ջ ॺ‫ބ‬ဒᆣൈࡗ, ѩ൐֤ࣇЌթ҆‫ٳ‬ཌྷܱ౵ॶ৽ඔऌ ֥౞ਈࠩग़޼؊Ӯູॖି. ٤ؓӫࡆૡ: ٤ؓӫࡆૡ൞ູડቀνಆྟླ౰ ‫ބ‬෮Ⴕಃဒᆣླ౰‫ࠢط‬Ӯ֞౵ॶ৽ᇏ֥ࡆૡ࠯ඌ, ӈ࡮ෘ‫م‬Їও RSAaElgamalaRabinaD-HaECC (ࠧງჵ౷ཌࡆૡෘ‫֩ )م‬. ٤ؓӫࡆૡ๙ӈᄝࡆૡ ‫ࢳބ‬ૡ‫ݖ‬ӱᇏ൐Ⴈਆ۱٤ؓӫ֥ૡ઒, ‫ٳ‬љӫູ‫܄‬ ᄂ‫ބ‬඲ᄂ. ٤ؓӫૡᄂؓऎႵਆ۱หׄ, ൮༵൞Ⴈః ᇏ၂۱ૡᄂ (‫܄‬ᄂࠇ඲ᄂ) ࡆૡྐ༏ު, ᆺႵਸ਼၂۱ ؓႋ֥ૡᄂҌିࢳष; ఃՑ൞‫܄‬ᄂॖཟః෰ದ‫܄‬षa ඲ᄂᄵЌૡ, ః෰ದ໭‫م‬๙‫܄ھݖ‬ᄂ๷ෘԛཌྷႋ֥ ඲ᄂ. ٤ؓӫࡆૡ࠯ඌᄝ౵ॶ৽֥ႋႨӆࣟᇶေЇ ওྐ༏ࡆૡaඔሳద଀‫֨ބ‬੣ಪᆣ֩, ఃᇏྐ༏ࡆૡ ӆࣟᇶေ൞Ⴎྐ༏‫ؿ‬ෂᆀ (࠺ູ A) ൐Ⴈࢤ൳ᆀ (࠺ ູ B) ֥‫܄‬ᄂؓྐ༏ࡆૡުᄜ‫ؿ‬ෂ۳ B, B ০Ⴈሱ ֥࠭඲ᄂؓྐ༏ࢳૡ. бหлࢌၞ֥ࡆૡࠧඋႿՎ ӆࣟ; ඔሳద଀ӆࣟᄵ൞Ⴎ‫ؿ‬ෂᆀ A ҐႨሱ֥࠭඲ ᄂࡆૡྐ༏ު‫ؿ‬ෂ۳ B, B ൐Ⴈ A ֥‫܄‬ᄂؓྐ༏ࢳ ૡaՖ‫ط‬ॖಒЌྐ༏൞Ⴎ A ‫ؿ‬ෂ֥; ֨੣ಪᆣӆࣟ ᄵ൞Ⴎग़޼؊൐Ⴈ඲ᄂࡆૡ֨੣ྐ༏ު‫ؿ‬ෂ۳‫ڛ‬ༀ ఖ, ުᆀࢤ൬ުҐႨ‫ھ‬ग़޼؊֥‫܄‬ᄂࢳૡѩಪᆣ֨ ੣ྐ༏. ၛбหл༢๤ູ২, ః٤ؓӫࡆૡࠏᇅೂ๭ 4 ෮ൕ: бหл༢๤၂Ϯ๙‫טݖ‬ႨҠቔ༢๤ָҪ֥ෛ ࠏඔളӮఖটളӮ 256 ໊ෛࠏඔቔູ඲ᄂ. бห л඲ᄂ֥ሹਈॖղ 2256, ࠞ଴๙‫ݖ‬ђ৥ಆ҆඲ᄂॢ ࡗটࠆ֤թႵбหл֥඲ᄂ, ၹ‫ط‬൞ૡ઒࿐νಆ֥. ູьႿ്љ, 256 ໊‫ࣉؽ‬ᇅྙൔ֥бหл඲ᄂࡼ๙ ‫ ݖ‬SHA256 ‫ݗ‬༐ෘ‫ ބم‬Base58 ሇߐ, ྙӮ 50 ۱ሳ ‫ژ‬Ӊ؇֥ၞ്љ‫ބ‬඀ཿ֥඲ᄂิ‫܂‬۳Ⴈ޼; бหл ֥‫܄‬ᄂ൞Ⴎ඲ᄂ൮༵ࣜ‫ ݖ‬Secp256k1 ງჵ౷ཌෘ‫م‬ ളӮ 65 ሳࢫӉ؇֥ෛࠏඔ. ‫܄ھ‬ᄂॖႨႿӁളб หлࢌၞൈ൐Ⴈֹ֥ᆶ, ఃളӮ‫ݖ‬ӱູ൮༵ࡼ‫܄‬ᄂ ࣉྛ SHA256 ‫ ބ‬RIPEMD160 ච‫ݗ‬༐ᄎෘѩളӮ 20 ሳࢫӉ؇֥ᅋေࢲ‫ ࠧ( ݔ‬hash160 ࢲ‫)ݔ‬, ᄜࣜ‫ݖ‬ SHA256 ‫ݗ‬༐ෘ‫ ބم‬Base58 ሇߐྙӮ 33 ሳ‫ژ‬Ӊ؇ ֥бหлֹᆶ[19]. ‫܄‬ᄂളӮ‫ݖ‬ӱ൞҂ॖ୉֥, ࠧ҂ ି๙‫܄ݖ‬ᄂّ๷ԛ඲ᄂ. бหл֥‫܄‬ᄂ‫ބ‬඲ ᄂ ๙ ӈ
6. 486 ሱ‫߄׮‬࿐Б 42 ज ๭ 4 бหл٤ؓӫࡆૡࠏᇅ Fig. 4 The asymmetric cryptography of the Bitcoin system ЌթႿбหлఫЇ໓ࡱ, ఃᇏ඲ᄂቋູᇗေ. ‫ש‬ാ඲ ᄂࣼၩ໅ሢ‫ש‬ാਔؓႋֹᆶ֥ಆ҆бหлሧӁ. གྷ Ⴕ֥бหл‫ބ‬౵ॶ৽༢๤ᇏ, ۴ऌൌ࠽ႋႨླ౰ၘ ࣜစളԛ‫؟‬඲ᄂࡆૡ࠯ඌ, ၛડቀ‫؟‬ᇗద଀֩۷ູ ਲࠃ‫گބ‬ᄖ֥ӆࣟ. 2.2 ຩ઎Ҫ ຩ઎Ҫ‫ٿ‬ልਔ౵ॶ৽༢๤֥ቆຩٚൔaཨ༏Ԯ Ѭླྀၰ‫ބ‬ඔऌဒᆣࠏᇅ֩ေ෍. ࢲ‫ކ‬ൌ࠽ႋႨླ౰, ๙‫ݖ‬ഡ࠹ห‫֥ק‬ԮѬླྀၰ‫ބ‬ඔऌဒᆣࠏᇅ, ॖ൐֤ ౵ॶ৽༢๤ᇏૄ၂۱ࢫׄ‫ି׻‬ҕა౵ॶඔऌ֥཮ဒ ‫࠺ބ‬ᅬ‫ݖ‬ӱ, ࣇ֒౵ॶඔऌ๙‫ݖ‬ಆຩն҆‫ׄࢫٳ‬ဒ ᆣު, Ҍି࠺ೆ౵ॶ৽. ቆຩٚൔ: ౵ॶ৽༢๤֥ࢫׄ၂ϮऎႵ‫҃ٳ‬ൔa ሱᇍྟaष٢ॖሱႮࣉԛ֩หྟ, ၹ‫ط‬၂ϮҐႨؓ֩ ൔຩ઎ (Peer-to-peer network, P2P ຩ઎) টቆᆮ ೛҃ಆ౯֥ҕაඔऌဒᆣ‫࠺ބ‬ᅬ֥ࢫׄ. P2P ຩ઎ ᇏ֥ૄ۱ࢫׄनֹ໊ؓ֩౏ၛы௜ൔຉ௪ࢲ‫ܒ‬ཌྷ޺ ৵๙‫޺ࢌބ‬, ҂թᄝ಩‫ޅ‬ᇏྏ߄֥ห൹ࢫׄ‫ބ‬Ҫࠩ ࢲ‫ܒ‬, ૄ۱ࢫׄन߶ӵքຩ઎ਫ਼Ⴎaဒᆣ౵ॶඔऌa ԮѬ౵ॶඔऌa‫ؿ‬གྷྍࢫׄ֩‫ିۿ‬. οᅶࢫׄթԥඔ ऌਈ֥҂๝, ॖၛ‫ູٳ‬ಆࢫׄ‫ބ‬౞ਈࠩࢫׄ. భᆀЌ թႵՖԷൗ౵ॶ֞֒భቋྍ౵ॶູᆸ֥ປᆜ౵ॶ৽ ඔऌ, ѩ๙‫ݖ‬ൌൈҕა౵ॶඔऌ֥཮ဒ‫࠺ބ‬ᅬট‫׮‬ ෿۷ྍᇶ৽. ಆࢫ֥ׄႪ൝ᄝႿ҂၇ঠ಩‫ޅ‬ః෰ࢫ ׄ‫׿ܔିط‬৫ֹൌགྷ಩ၩ౵ॶඔऌ֥཮ဒaҰ࿘‫ބ‬ ۷ྍ, ਜ൝ᄵ൞ົ޹ಆࢫ֥ׄॢࡗӮЧࢠۚ; ၛбห лູ২, ࢩᆸ֞ 2016 ୍ 2 ᄅ, Էൗ౵ॶᇀ֒భ౵ॶ ֥ඔऌਈၘࣜӑ‫ ݖ‬60 GB. აᆭཌྷб, ౞ਈࠩࢫׄᄵ ࣇЌթ၂҆‫ٳ‬౵ॶ৽ඔऌ, ѩ๙‫ ֻݖ‬2.1 ࢫิ֥֞ ࡥၞᆦ‫ڱ‬ဒᆣٚൔཟఃཌྷਣࢫׄ౨౰෮ླ֥ඔऌট ປӮඔऌ཮ဒ. ඔऌԮѬླྀၰ: ಩၂౵ॶඔऌളӮު, ࡼႮളӮ ‫ھ‬ඔऌ֥ࢫܼׄѬ֞ಆຩః෰෮Ⴕ֥ࢫׄটࡆၛဒ ᆣ. གྷႵ֥౵ॶ৽༢๤၂Ϯ۴ऌൌ࠽ႋႨླ౰ഡ࠹ бหлԮѬླྀၰ֥эᇕ, ২ೂၛ෾٘౵ॶ৽ࠢӮਔ ෮໌֥ “Ⴉਲླྀၰ” ၛࢳथၹ౵ॶඔऌಒಪ෎؇ॹ ‫֝ط‬ᇁ֥ۚ౵ॶቔ٬ੱ‫ބ‬ෛᆭ‫ط‬ট֥νಆྟ‫ڄ‬ག[4]. ۴ऌᇏЧՒ֥ഡ࠹, бหл༢๤֥ࢌၞඔऌԮѬླྀ ၰЇওೂ༯҄ᇧ[3]: 1) бหлࢌၞࢫׄࡼྍളӮ֥ࢌၞඔऌཟಆຩ ෮ႵࢫׄࣉྛܼѬ; 2) ૄ۱ࢫׄ‫ࡼ׻‬൬֥ࠢ֞ࢌၞඔऌթԥ֞၂۱ ౵ॶᇏ; 3) ૄ۱ࢫׄࠎႿሱദෘ৯ᄝ౵ॶᇏᅳ֞၂۱ऎ Ⴕቀ‫ܔ‬଴؇֥‫۽‬ቔਈᆣૼ; 4) ֒ࢫׄᅳ֞౵ॶ֥‫۽‬ቔਈᆣૼު, ࣼཟಆຩ ෮ႵࢫܼׄѬՎ౵ॶ; 5) ࣇ֒Ї‫ݣ‬ᄝ౵ॶᇏ֥෮Ⴕࢌၞ‫׻‬൞Ⴕི֥౏ ᆭభໃթᄝ‫֥ݖ‬, ః෰ࢫׄҌಪ๝‫ھ‬౵ॶ֥Ⴕིྟ; 6) ః෰ࢫׄࢤ൳‫ھ‬ඔऌ౵ॶ, ѩᄝ‫ھ‬౵ॶ֥ଌ ແᇅᄯྍ֥౵ॶၛ࿼Ӊ‫่৽ھ‬, ‫ࡼط‬Фࢤ൳౵ॶ֥ ෛࠏ‫ݗ‬༐ᆴ൪ູ༵Ⴟྍ౵ॶ֥ෛࠏ‫ݗ‬༐ᆴ. ླေඪૼ֥൞, ೂ‫ࢌݔ‬ၞࢫׄ൞აః෰ࢫׄ໭ ৵ࢤ֥ྍࢫׄ, бหл༢๤๙ӈ߶ࡼ၂ቆӉ௹໗‫ק‬ ᄎྛ֥ “ᇕሰࢫׄ” ๷ࡩ۳ྍࢫׄࡹ৫৵ࢤ, ࠇᆀ๷ ࡩᇀഒ၂۱ࢫׄ৵ࢤ֞ྍࢫׄ. Վຓ, ࢌၞඔऌܼѬ ൈ, ѩ҂ླေಆ҆ࢫׄनࢤ൬֞, ‫ط‬൞ᆺေቀ‫֥؟ܔ‬ ࢫׄቓԛཙႋࠧॖᆜ‫ࣉކ‬ೆ౵ॶᅬЧᇏ. ໃࢤ൬֞ ห‫ࢌק‬ၞඔऌ֥ࢫׄᄵॖཟਣ࣍ࢫׄ౨౰༯ᄛ‫ھ‬ಌ ാ֥ࢌၞඔऌ[19]. ඔऌဒᆣࠏᇅ: P2P ຩ઎ᇏ֥ૄ۱ࢫׄ‫׻‬ൈख़ ࡓ๐бหлຩ઎ᇏܼѬ֥ඔऌაྍ౵ॶ. ࢫׄࢤ൬ ֞ਣ࣍ࢫׄ‫ؿ‬ট֥ඔऌު, ࡼ൮༵ဒᆣ‫ھ‬ඔऌ֥Ⴕ ིྟ. ೂ‫ݔ‬ඔऌႵི, ᄵοᅶࢤ൬ඨ྽ູྍඔऌࡹ ৫թԥӽၛᄠթഉໃ࠺ೆ౵ॶ֥Ⴕིඔऌ, ๝ൈ࠿ ࿃ཟਣ࣍ࢫׄሇ‫ ;ؿ‬ೂ‫ݔ‬ඔऌ໭ི, ᄵ৫ࠧ٬ఙ‫ھ‬ ඔऌ, Ֆ‫ط‬Ќᆣ໭ིඔऌ҂߶ᄝ౵ॶ৽ຩ઎࠿࿃Ԯ Ѭ. ၛбหлູ২, бหл֥ঀ‫߶ׄࢫ۽‬൬ࠢ‫ބ‬ဒᆣ P2P ຩ઎ᇏܼѬ֥ഉໃಒಪ֥ࢌၞඔऌ, ѩؓᅶყ ‫ק‬ၬ֥ѓሙౢֆ, Ֆඔऌࢲ‫ܒ‬aე‫ྟٓܿم‬aൻೆൻ ԛ‫ބ‬ඔሳద଀֩۲ٚ૫཮ဒࢌၞඔऌ֥Ⴕིྟ, ѩ ࡼႵིࢌၞඔऌᆜ‫֒֞ކ‬భ౵ॶᇏ; ๝৘, ֒ଖঀ‫۽‬
7. 4௹ ჯႧ֩: ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ‫ؿ‬ᅚགྷሑაᅚຬ 487 “຋” ֞ྍ౵ॶު, ః෰ঀ‫߶္ׄࢫ۽‬οᅶყ‫ק‬ၬѓ ሙট཮ဒ‫ھ‬౵ॶ൞‫ڎ‬Ї‫ݣ‬ቀ‫۽ܔ‬ቔਈᆣૼ, ൈࡗՄ ൞‫ڎ‬Ⴕི֩; ೂಒಪႵི, ః෰ঀ‫ھࡼ߶ׄࢫ۽‬౵ॶ ৽ࢤ֞ᇶ౵ॶ৽ഈ, ѩष൓ࣩᆚ༯၂۱ྍ౵ॶ. Ⴎຩ઎Ҫഡ࠹ࠏ৘ॖ࡮, ౵ॶ৽൞‫҃ٳ֥྘ׅ‬ ൔնඔऌ࠯ඌ. ಆຩඔऌ๝ൈթԥႿಀᇏྏ߄༢๤ ֥෮Ⴕࢫׄഈ, ࠧ൐҆‫ׄࢫٳ‬ാི, ᆺေಯթᄝ၂ ۱ᆞӈᄎྛ֥ࢫׄ, ౵ॶ৽ᇶ৽ඔऌࣼॖປಆ߫‫گ‬ ‫ط‬҂߶႕ཙު࿃౵ॶඔऌ֥࠺੣ა۷ྍ. ᆃᇕۚ؇ ‫ٳ‬೛߄֥౵ॶթԥଆൔაᄉթԥଆൔ֥౵љᄝႿ, ުᆀ൞ࠎႿᇏྏ߄ࢲ‫ࠎܒ‬Ԥഈ֥‫؟‬ᇗթԥ‫؟ބ‬ᇗඔ ऌС‫ٺ‬ଆൔ, ࠧ “‫؟‬ᇏྏ߄” ଆൔ; ‫ط‬భᆀᄵ൞ປಆ “ಀᇏྏ߄” ֥թԥଆൔ, ऎႵ۷֥ۚඔऌνಆྟ. 2.3 ‫്܋‬Ҫ ೂ‫ޅ‬ᄝ‫҃ٳ‬ൔ༢๤ᇏֹིۚղӮ‫്܋‬൞‫҃ٳ‬ൔ ࠹ෘਵთ֥ᇗေ࿹࣮໙ี. ᆞೂഠ߶༢๤ᇏ “૶ᇶ” ‫ࠢ“ ބ‬ᇏ” ֥ؓ৫ܱ༢ཌྷර, थҦಃᄀ‫ٳ‬೛֥༢๤ղ Ӯ‫ੱ്ི֥܋‬ᄀ֮a֌༢๤໗‫ބྟק‬ડၩ؇ᄀۚ; ‫ط‬ थҦಃᄀࠢᇏ֥༢๤۷ၞղӮ‫്܋‬, ֌๝ൈ۷ၞԛ གྷህᇅ‫׿ބ‬Ҋ. ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥‫ྏނ‬Ⴊ൝ᆭ၂ࣼ൞ି ‫ܔ‬ᄝथҦಃۚ؇‫ٳ‬೛֥ಀᇏྏ߄༢๤ᇏ൐֤۲ࢫׄ ֹིۚᆌؓ౵ॶඔऌ֥ႵིྟղӮ‫്܋‬. ᄪ௹֥бหл౵ॶ৽ҐႨۚ؇၇ঠࢫׄෘ৯֥ ‫۽‬ቔਈᆣૼ (Proof of work, PoW) ࠏᇅটЌᆣбห лຩ઎‫҃ٳ‬ൔ࠺ᅬ֥၂ᇁྟ. ෛሢ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥‫ؿ‬ ᅚ‫ބ‬۲ᇕࣩᆚл֥ཌྷ࠿Ⴄགྷ, ࿹࣮ᆀิԛ‫؟‬ᇕ҂၇ ঠෘ৯‫ܔିط‬ղӮ‫ࠏ്֥܋‬ᇅ, ২ೂׄׄл൮Է֥ ಃၭᆣૼ (Proof of stake, PoS) ‫[്܋‬23] ‫ބ‬бห‫ܢ‬൮ Է֥൱ಃ‫ٺܢ‬ᆣૼࠏᇅ (Delegated proof of stake, DPOS) ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅ[24] ֩. ౵ॶ৽‫്܋‬Ҫࠧ‫ٿ‬ልਔᆃ ུ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅ. PoW ‫്܋‬: ᇏЧՒᄝఃбหл‫ંྟࠎ׍‬໓ᇏഡ ࠹ਔ PoW ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅ, ః‫ྏނ‬නམ൞๙‫ݖ‬ႄೆ‫҃ٳ‬ൔ ࢫ֥ׄෘ৯ࣩᆚটЌᆣඔऌ၂ᇁྟ‫്֥܋ބ‬νಆྟ. бหл༢๤ᇏ, ۲ࢫׄ (ࠧঀ‫ࠎ )۽‬Ⴟ۲ሱ֥࠹ෘࠏ ෘ৯ཌྷ޺ࣩᆚট‫܋‬๝ࢳथ၂۱౰ࢳ‫گ‬ᄖ֌ဒᆣಸၞ ֥ SHA256 ඔ࿐଴ี (ࠧ຋ঀ), ቋॹࢳथ‫ھ‬଴ี֥ ࢫׄࡼࠆ֤౵ॶ࠺ᅬಃ‫ބ‬༢๤ሱ‫׮‬ളӮ֥бหлࢂ ৣ. ‫ھ‬ඔ࿐଴ีॖіඍູ: ۴ऌ֒భ଴؇ᆴ, ๙‫ݖ‬ෆ ෬౰ࢳ၂۱‫ކ‬ൡ֥ෛࠏඔ (Nonce) ൐֤๭ 3 ᇏ౵ॶ ๨۲ჭඔऌ֥ච SHA256 ‫ݗ‬༐ᆴཬႿࠇ֩Ⴟଢѓ‫ݗ‬ ༐ᆴ. бหл༢๤๙‫ݖ‬ਲࠃ‫ט‬ᆜෛࠏඔෆ෬֥଴؇ ᆴট॥ᇅ౵ॶ֥௜नളӮൈࡗູ 10 ‫ٳ‬ᇒቐႷ. ၂Ϯ ඪট, PoW ‫്֥܋‬ෛࠏඔෆ෬‫ݖ‬ӱೂ༯ (ҕᅶ๭ 3 ౵ॶࢲ‫[)ܒ‬19]: ҄ᇧ 1. ෆࠢ֒భൈࡗ‫֥؍‬ಆຩໃಒಪࢌၞ, ѩ ᄹࡆ၂۱ႨႿ‫ྍྛؿ‬бหлࢂৣ֥ Coinbase ࢌၞ, ྙӮ֒భ౵ॶุ֥ࢌၞࠢ‫;ކ‬ ҄ᇧ 2. ࠹ෘ౵ॶุࢌၞࠢ‫ ֥ކ‬Merkle ۴࠺ ೆ౵ॶ๨, ѩแཿ౵ॶ๨֥ః෰ჭඔऌ, ఃᇏෛࠏඔ Nonce ᇂਬ; ҄ᇧ 3. ෛࠏඔ Nonce ࡆ 1; ࠹ෘ֒భ౵ॶ๨ ֥ච SHA256 ‫ݗ‬༐ᆴ, ೂ‫ཬݔ‬Ⴟࠇ֩Ⴟଢѓ‫ݗ‬༐ᆴ, ᄵӮ‫ۿ‬ෆ෬֞‫ކ‬ൡ֥ෛࠏඔѩࠆ֤‫ھ‬౵ॶ֥࠺ᅬಃ; ‫ڎ‬ᄵ࠿࿃҄ᇧ 3 ᆰ֞಩၂ࢫׄෆ෬֞‫ކ‬ൡ֥ෛࠏඔ ູᆸ; ҄ᇧ 4. ೂ‫ݔ‬၂‫ק‬ൈࡗଽໃӮ‫ۿ‬, ᄵ۷ྍൈࡗՄ ‫ބ‬ໃಒಪࢌၞࠢ‫ކ‬aᇗྍ࠹ෘ Merkle ۴ު࠿࿃ෆ ෬. ‫ކژ‬ေ౰֥౵ॶ๨‫ݗ‬༐ᆴ๙ӈႮ‫؟‬۱భ֝ਬ‫ܒ‬ Ӯ, ଢѓ‫ݗ‬༐ᆴᄀཬ, ౵ॶ๨‫ݗ‬༐ᆴ֥భ֝ਬᄀ‫؟‬, Ӯ‫ۿ‬ᅳ֞‫ކ‬ൡ֥ෛࠏඔѩ “຋” ԛྍ౵ॶ֥଴؇ᄀ ն. ऌ౵ॶ৽ൌൈࡓҩຩᅟ Blockchain.info ཁൕ, ࢩᆸ֞ 2016 ୍ 2 ᄅ, ‫ކژ‬ေ౰֥౵ॶ๨‫ݗ‬༐ᆴ၂ ϮႵ 17 ۱భ֝ਬ, ২ೂֻ 398 346 ‫ݼ‬౵ॶ‫ݗ‬༐ᆴູ “0000000000000000077f754f22f21629a7975cf · · · ”. οᅶ‫࠹ੱۀ‬ෘ, ૄ 16 Ցෛࠏඔෆ෬ࡼ߶Ⴕᅳ֞၂ ۱‫ݣ‬Ⴕ၂۱భ֝ਬ֥౵ॶ‫ݗ‬༐ᆴ, ၹ‫ط‬бหлଢభ 17 ໊భ֝ਬ‫ݗ‬༐ᆴေ౰ 1617 Ցෛࠏඔෆ෬Ҍିᅳ ֞၂۱‫ކ‬ൡ֥ෛࠏඔѩളӮ၂۱ྍ֥౵ॶ. ႮՎॖ ࡮, бหл౵ॶ৽༢๤֥νಆྟ‫ބ‬҂ॖ՞‫ྟڿ‬൞Ⴎ PoW ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅ఼֥նෘ৯෮Ќᆣ֥, ಩‫ؓޅ‬Ⴟ౵ॶ ඔऌ֥‫ࠇࠌ۾‬՞‫׻ڿ‬сྶᇗྍ࠹ෘ‫ھ‬౵ॶၛࠣఃު ෮Ⴕ౵ॶ֥ SHA256 ଴ี, ѩ౏࠹ෘ෎؇сྶ൐֤ ເᄯ৽Ӊ؇ӑ‫ݖ‬ᇶ৽, ᆃᇕ‫ࠌ۾‬଴؇֝ᇁ֥ӮЧࡼ ჹӑః൬ၭ. ऌ‫࠹ܙ‬, ࢩᆸ֞ 2016 ୍ 1 ᄅ, бหл ౵ॶ৽֥ෘ৯ၘࣜղ֞ 800 000 000 Gh/s, ࠧૄ૰ࣉ ྛ 8 × 1018 Ցᄎෘ, ӑ‫ݖ‬ಆ౯ Top500 ӑࠩ࠹ෘࠏ ֥ෘ৯ሹ‫ބ‬. PoW ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅ൞ऎႵᇗေၩၬ֥Էྍ, ః࣍ެ ປૅֹᆜ‫ކ‬ਔбหл༢๤֥ࠊл‫ྛؿ‬aࢌၞᆦ‫ބڱ‬ ဒᆣ֩‫ିۿ‬, ѩ๙‫ݖ‬ෘ৯ࣩᆚЌᅰ༢๤֥νಆྟ‫ބ‬ ಀᇏྏྟ; PoW ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅ๝ൈթᄝሢཁᇷ֥ಌཊ, ః఼նෘ৯ᄯӮ֥ሧჷশ‫( ٮ‬ೂ‫׈‬৯) ৥টູ࿹࣮ᆀ ෮ጪѨ, ‫౏ط‬Ӊղ 10 ‫ٳ‬ᇒ֥ࢌၞಒಪൈࡗ൐ఃཌྷؓ ҂ൡ‫ࢌحཬކ‬ၞ֥അြႋႨ. PoS ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅ: PoS ‫്܋‬൞ູࢳथ PoW ‫ࠏ്܋‬ ᇅ֥ሧჷশ‫ބٮ‬νಆྟಌཊ‫ิط‬ԛู֥սٚσ. ཋ Ⴟ௉‫ږ‬, Ч໓ᇶေऊࢊႿ PoS ཌྷؓႿ PoW ֥Էྍ ᆭԩ. PoS ‫്܋‬Чᇉഈ൞ҐႨಃၭᆣૼটսู PoW ᇏ֥ࠎႿ‫ݗ‬༐ෘ৯֥‫۽‬ቔਈᆣૼ, ൞Ⴎ༢๤ᇏऎႵ ቋۚಃၭ‫ط‬٤ቋۚෘ৯֥ࢫׄࠆ֤౵ॶ࠺ᅬಃ. ಃ ၭุགྷູࢫׄؓห‫ק‬ඔਈࠊл֥෮Ⴕಃ, ӫູлਭ ࠇл฿ඔ (Coin days). лਭ൞ห‫ק‬ඔਈ֥лაఃቋ ު၂Ցࢌၞ֥ൈࡗӉ؇֥Ӱࠒ, ૄՑࢌၞ‫߶ࡼ׻‬ཨ
8. 488 ሱ‫߄׮‬࿐Б 42 ज ‫וݻ‬ห‫ק‬ඔਈ֥лਭ. ২ೂ, ଖದᄝ၂гࢌၞᇏ൬֞ 10 ۱лުѩӻႵ 10 ฿, ᄵࠆ֤ 100 лਭ; ‫ުط‬ః޽ ‫ ו‬5 ۱лު, ᄵཨ‫ וݻ‬50 лਭ. ཁಖ, ҐႨ PoS ‫܋‬ ്ࠏᇅ֥༢๤ᄝห‫ק‬ൈࡗׄഈ֥лਭሹඔ൞Ⴕཋ֥, Ӊ௹ӻлᆀ۷ౠཟႿႚႵ۷‫؟‬лਭ, ၹՎлਭॖ൪ ູఃᄝ PoS ༢๤ᇏ֥ಃၭ. Վຓ, PoW ‫ݖ്܋‬ӱᇏ ۲ࢫׄ຋ঀ଴؇ཌྷ๝, ‫ ط‬PoS ‫ݖ്܋‬ӱᇏ֥଴؇ა ࢌၞൻೆ֥лਭӮّб, ཨ‫ݻ‬лਭᄀ‫؟‬ᄵ຋ঀ଴؇ ᄀ֮. ࢫׄ஑؎ᇶ৽֥ѓሙ္Ⴎ PoW ‫്֥܋‬ቋۚ ৆࠹଴؇ሇэູቋۚཨ‫ݻ‬лਭ, ૄ۱౵ॶ֥ࢌၞ‫׻‬ ߶ࡼఃཨ‫֥ݻ‬лਭิࢌ۳‫ھ‬౵ॶ, ৆࠹ཨ‫ݻ‬лਭቋ ֥ۚ౵ॶࡼФ৽ࢤ֞ᇶ৽. ႮՎॖ࡮, PoS ‫ݖ്܋‬ӱ ࣇ၇ौଽ҆лਭ‫ބ‬ಃၭ‫ط‬҂ླေཨ‫ݻ‬ຓ҆ෘ৯‫ބ‬ሧ ჷ, Ֆ۴Чഈࢳथਔ PoW ‫്܋‬ෘ৯শ‫֥ٮ‬໙ี, ѩ ౏ି‫ܔ‬ᄝ၂‫ק‬ӱ؇ഈ෪؋ղӮ‫്֥܋‬ൈࡗ, ၹ‫ط‬б หлᆭު֥ྸ‫ࣩ؟‬ᆚлनҐႨ PoS ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅ. DPoS ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅ: DPoS ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅ֥ࠎЧනਫ਼ো රႿ “‫׬‬൙߶थҦ”, ࠧ༢๤ᇏૄ۱‫ׄࢫתܢ‬ॖၛࡼ ఃӻႵ֥‫ٺܢ‬ಃၭቔູ࿊ௐ൱Ⴭ၂۱սі, ࠆ֤ௐ ඔቋ‫౏؟‬჻ၩӮູսі֥భ 101 ۱ࢫׄࡼࣉೆ “‫׬‬ ൙߶”, οᅶ࠻‫֥ק‬ൈࡗі੽ੀؓࢌၞࣉྛյЇࢲෘ ѩ౏దඇ (ࠧളӁ) ၂۱ྍ౵ॶ. ૄ۱౵ॶФదඇᆭ భ, сྶ༵ဒᆣభ၂۱౵ॶၘࣜФ൳ྐ಩֥սіࢫ ׄ෮దඇ. “‫׬‬൙߶” ֥൱ಃսіࢫׄॖၛՖૄгࢌ ၞ֥൭࿃‫ٮ‬ᇏࠆ֤൬ೆ, ๝ൈေӮູ൱ಃսіࢫׄ сྶ࢚ବ၂‫ק‬ਈ֥Ќᆣࣁ, ఃࣁ‫ح‬ཌྷ֒ႿളӁ၂۱ ౵ॶ൬ೆ֥ 100 П. ൱ಃսіࢫׄсྶؓః෰‫תܢ‬ ࢫׄ‫ڵ‬ᄳ, ೂ‫ݔ‬ఃհ‫ݖ‬దඇཌྷؓႋ֥౵ॶ, ᄵ‫ࡼתܢ‬ ߶൬߭࿊ௐՖ‫“ ׄࢫھࡼط‬๧ԛ” ‫׬‬൙߶. ၹՎ, ൱ ಃսіࢫׄ๙ӈсྶЌᆣ 99 % ၛഈ֥ᄝཌൈࡗၛ ൌགྷ႔০ଢѓ[24]. ཁಖ, ა PoW ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅсྶྐ಩ ቋۚෘ৯ࢫׄ‫ ބ‬PoS ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅсྶྐ಩ቋۚಃၭࢫ ׄ҂๝֥൞, DPoS ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅᇏૄ۱ࢫׄ‫ܔି׻‬ሱ ᇶथ‫ק‬ఃྐ಩֥൱ಃࢫׄ౏Ⴎᆃུࢫׄ੽ੀ࠺ᅬള Ӯྍ౵ॶ, ၹ‫ط‬ն‫ࡨږ‬ഒਔҕაဒᆣ‫࠺ބ‬ᅬ֥ࢫׄ ඔਈ, ॖၛൌགྷॹ෎‫്܋‬ဒᆣ. Ԣഈඍ೘ᇕᇶੀ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅຓ, ൌ࠽౵ॶ৽ႋႨ ᇏ္စളԛਔ PoW+PoSaྛ‫׮‬ᆣૼ (Proof of activity) ֩‫؟‬۱эᇕࠏᇅ. ᆃུ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅ۲ႵႪਜ൝, бหл֥ PoW ‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅ၇ौః༵‫ؿ‬Ⴊ൝ၘࣜྙӮ Ӯඃ֥຋ঀӁြ৽, ᆦӻᆀᇙ‫؟‬, ‫ ط‬PoS ‫ ބ‬DPoS ֩ྍྖࠏᇅᄵ۷ູνಆaߌЌ‫ིۚބ‬, Ֆ‫ط‬൐֤‫്܋‬ ࠏᇅ֥࿊ᄴ໙ีӮູ౵ॶ৽༢๤࿹࣮ᆀቋ҂ၞղӮ ‫്֥܋‬໙ี. 2.4 ࠗৣҪ ౵ॶ৽‫ݖ്܋‬ӱ๙‫߸ݖ‬ऊնܿଆ‫֥ׄࢫ്܋‬ෘ ৯ሧჷটൌགྷ‫܋‬ཚ౵ॶ৽ᅬЧ֥ඔऌဒᆣ‫࠺ބ‬ᅬ‫۽‬ ቔ, ၹ‫ط‬ఃЧᇉഈ൞၂ᇕ‫֥ࡗׄࢫ്܋‬಩ༀᇙЇ‫ݖ‬ ӱ. ಀᇏྏ߄༢๤ᇏ֥‫ׄࢫ്܋‬Чദ൞ሱ০֥, ቋ ն߄ሱദ൬ၭ൞ఃҕაඔऌဒᆣ‫࠺ބ‬ᅬ֥۴Чଢѓ. ၹՎ, сྶഡ࠹ࠗৣཌྷಸ֥‫ކ‬৘ᇙЇࠏᇅ, ൐֤‫܋‬ ്ࢫׄቋն߄ሱദ൬ၭ֥۱ุ৘ྟྛູაЌᅰಀᇏ ྏ߄౵ॶ৽༢๤֥νಆ‫ބ‬Ⴕིྟ֥ᆜุଢѓཌྷ໖‫ކ‬. ౵ॶ৽༢๤๙‫ݖ‬ഡ࠹ൡ؇֥ࣜ࠶ࠗৣࠏᇅѩა‫്܋‬ ‫ݖ‬ӱཌྷࠢӮ, Ֆ‫߸ط‬ऊնܿଆ֥ࢫׄҕაѩྙӮਔ ؓ౵ॶ৽৥ൎ֥໗‫്܋ק‬. ၛбหлູ২, бหл PoW ‫്܋‬ᇏ֥ࣜ࠶ࠗৣ Ⴎྍ‫ྛؿ‬бหлࢂৣ‫ࢌބ‬ၞੀ๙‫ݖ‬ӱᇏ֥൭࿃‫ٮ‬ਆ ҆‫ٳ‬ቆӮ, ࢂৣ۳ PoW ‫ݖ്܋‬ӱᇏӮ‫ۿ‬ෆ෬֞‫ھ‬ ౵ॶ֥ෛࠏඔѩ࠺੣‫ھ‬౵ॶ֥ࢫׄ. ၹՎ, ᆺႵ֒۲ ࢫׄ๙‫ކݖ‬ቔ‫܋‬๝‫܋ࡹܒ‬ཚ‫ބ‬ॖྐ֥౵ॶ৽৥ൎ࠺ ੣aѩົ޹бหл༢๤֥Ⴕིྟ, ఃࠆ֤֥бหлࢂ ৣ‫ࢌބ‬ၞ൭࿃‫ٮ‬Ҍ߶Ⴕࡎᆴ. бหлၘࣜྙӮӮඃ ֥຋ঀള෿ಁ, նਈ஥СህြঀࠏഡС֥ঀ‫ࠞࠒ۽‬ ҕაࠎႿ຋ঀ֥ PoW ‫ݖ്܋‬ӱ, ః۴Чଢ֥ࣼ൞๙ ‫ࠆݖ‬౼бหлࢂৣѩሇߐູཌྷႋ‫م‬лটൌགྷ႔০. ‫ࠏྛؿ‬ᇅ: бหл༢๤ᇏૄ۱౵ॶ‫ྛؿ‬бหл ֥ඔਈ൞ෛሢൈࡗࢨะྟ‫֥ࡨ־‬. Էൗ౵ॶఏ֥ ૄ۱౵ॶࡼ‫ ྛؿ‬50 ۱бหлࢂৣ۳‫ھ‬౵ॶ֥࠺ᅬ ᆀ, Վުૄ‫ۯ‬ჿ 4 ୍ (21 ຣ۱౵ॶ) ૄ౵ॶ‫ྛؿ‬б หл֥ඔਈࢆ֮၂϶, ၇Վো๷, ၂ᆰ֞бหл֥ඔ ਈ໗‫ק‬ᄝഈཋ 2 100 ຣູᆸ[19]. бหлࢌၞ‫ݖ‬ӱᇏ ߶Ӂള൭࿃‫ٮ‬, ଢభଏಪ൭࿃‫ٮ‬൞ຣ‫ٳ‬ᆭ၂۱бห л, ᆃ҆‫ٮٳ‬Ⴈ္߶࠺ೆ౵ॶѩࢂৣ۳࠺ᅬᆀ. ᆃਆ ҆‫ٮٳ‬Ⴈࡼ߶‫ٿ‬ልᄝૄ۱౵ॶֻ֥၂۱ࢌၞ (ӫູ Coinbase ࢌၞ) ᇏ. ෙಖགྷᄝૄ۱౵ॶ֥ሹ൭࿃‫ٮ‬ ཌྷؓႿྍ‫ྛؿ‬бหлটඪܿଆ‫( ཬޓ‬๙ӈ҂߶ӑ‫ ݖ‬1 ۱бหл), ֌ෛሢໃটбหл‫ྛؿ‬ඔਈ֥ᇯ҄ࡨഒ മᇀ๔ᆸ‫ྛؿ‬, ൭࿃‫ࡼٮ‬ᇯࡶӮູ౺‫ބ്܋ׄࢫ׮‬ ࠺ᅬ֥ᇶေ‫׮‬৯. ๝ൈ, ൭࿃‫ߎٮ‬ॖၛٝᆸնਈັ‫ح‬ ࢌၞؓбหлຩ઎‫ؿ‬ఏ֥ “‫ٸ‬ӣ” ‫ࠌ۾‬, ఏ֞Ќᅰν ಆ֥ቔႨ. ‫ٳ‬஥ࠏᇅ: бหл༢๤ᇏ, նਈ֥ཬෘ৯ࢫׄ ๙ӈ߶࿊ᄴࡆೆঀӽ, ๙‫ݖ‬ཌྷ޺‫ކ‬ቔ߸ࠢෘ৯টิ ۚ “຋” ֞ྍ౵ॶ֥‫ੱۀ‬, ѩ‫܋‬ཚ‫ھ‬౵ॶ֥бหл ‫ބ‬൭࿃‫ৣࢂٮ‬. ऌ Bitcoinmining.com ๤࠹, ଢభ ၘࣜթᄝ 13 ᇕ҂๝֥‫ٳ‬஥ࠏᇅ[25]. ᇶੀঀӽ๙ӈ ҐႨ PPLNS (Pay per last N shares)aPPS (Pay per share) ‫ ބ‬PROP (PROPortionately) ֩ࠏᇅ. ঀӽࡼ۲ࢫׄ‫܊‬ང֥ෘ৯οб২߃‫ٳ‬Ӯ҂๝֥‫ٺܢ‬ (Share), ఃᇏ PPLNS ࠏᇅ൞ᆷ‫ؿ‬གྷ౵ॶު, ۲‫ކ‬ ቔࢫׄ۴ऌఃᄝቋު N ۱‫ٺܢ‬ଽ‫܊‬ང֥ൌ࠽‫ٺܢ‬ б২ট‫ٳ‬஥౵ॶᇏ֥бหл; PPS ᄵᆰࢤ۴ऌ‫ٺܢ‬ б২ູ۲ࢫׄ‫ܙ‬ෘ‫ބ‬ᆦ‫ڱ‬၂۱‫֥קܥ‬৘ં൬ၭ, Ґ ႨՎٚൔ֥ঀӽࡼ߶ൡ؇൬౼൭࿃‫ٮ‬ট૛Ҁఃູ۲
9. 4௹ ჯႧ֩: ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ‫ؿ‬ᅚགྷሑაᅚຬ 489 ࢫׄӵք֥൬ၭ҂ಒ‫ڄྟק‬ག; PROP ࠏᇅᄵ۴ऌ ࢫׄ‫܊‬ང֥‫ٺܢ‬οб২ֹ‫ٳ‬஥бหл. ঀӽ֥ԛགྷ ൞ؓбหл‫ބ‬౵ॶ৽ಀᇏྏ߄౴൝֥మᄝຯཽ, ೂ ‫ޅ‬ഡ࠹‫ކ‬৘֥‫ٳ‬஥ࠏᇅႄ֝۲ࢫׄ‫ކ‬৘ֹ‫ކ‬ቔaх ૧ԛགྷၹෘ৯‫ݖ‬؇ࠢᇏ‫֝ط‬ᇁ֥νಆྟ໙ี൞ታր ࢳथ֥࿹࣮໙ี. 2.5 ‫ކ‬ჿҪ ‫ކ‬ჿҪ‫ٿ‬ል౵ॶ৽༢๤֥۲ো࢖Чս઒aෘ‫م‬ ၛࠣႮՎളӮ֥۷ູ‫گ‬ᄖ֥ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ. ೂ‫ݔ‬ඪඔऌa ຩ઎‫്܋ބ‬೘۱ҪՑቔູ౵ॶ৽ָҪ “ྴ୅ࠏ” ‫ٳ‬ љӵքඔऌіൕaඔऌԮѬ‫ބ‬ඔऌဒᆣ‫߅֥ିۿ‬, ‫ކ‬ ჿҪᄵ൞ࡹ৫ᄝ౵ॶ৽ྴ୅ࠏᆭഈ֥അြઆࠠ‫ބ‬ෘ ‫م‬, ൞ൌགྷ౵ॶ৽༢๤ਲࠃщӱ‫ބ‬Ҡቔඔऌ֥ࠎԤ. Їওбหлᄝଽ֥ඔሳࡆૡࠊлն‫؟‬ҐႨ٤๭ਲປ С֥ࡥֆ࢖Чս઒টщӱ॥ᇅࢌၞ‫ݖ‬ӱ, ᆃ္൞ᇆ ି‫ކ‬ჿ֥Ԡྙ; ෛሢ࠯ඌ֥‫ؿ‬ᅚ, ଢభၘࣜԛགྷၛ෾ ٘֩๭ਲປС֥ॖൌགྷ۷ູ‫گ‬ᄖ‫ބ‬ਲࠃ֥ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ ֥࢖Чე࿽, ൐֤౵ॶ৽ି‫ܔ‬ᆦӻ‫ࣁܴޡ‬ವ‫ބ‬ഠ߶ ༢๤֥ᇭ‫؟‬ႋႨ. Чࢫࡼၛбหл࢖Чູ২, Ֆ࠯ඌ ࢘؇ࡥඍ‫ކ‬ჿҪ֥ࠎЧ࠯ඌ‫ބ‬ٚ‫ܱ ;م‬Ⴟᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ ֥࿼ഥଽಸࡼᄝֻ 5 ࢫษં. бหлҐႨ၂ᇕࡥֆ֥aࠎႿؐᅜ֥aՖቐཟ Ⴗԩ৘֥࢖Чე࿽, ‫ط‬၂۱࢖ЧЧᇉഈ൞‫ڸ‬ሢᄝб หлࢌၞഈ֥၂ቆᆷ਷֥ਙі. бหлࢌၞ၇ঠႿ ਆো࢖Чটࡆၛဒᆣ, ࠧ෭‫࢖ק‬Ч‫ࢳބ‬෭࢖Ч, ‫ؽ‬ ᆀ֥҂๝ቆ‫ކ‬ॖᄝбหлࢌၞᇏစളԛ໭ཋඔਈ֥ ॥ᇅ่ࡱ. ఃᇏ, ෭‫࢖ק‬Ч൞‫ڸ‬ሢᄝࢌၞൻԛᆴഈ֥ “ᅰθ”, ܿ‫ק‬ၛު޽‫ٮ‬ᆃгࢌၞൻԛ่֥ࡱ; ࢳ෭ ࢖Чᄵ൞ડቀФ෭‫࢖ק‬Чᄝ၂۱ൻԛഈഡ‫ٮ޽֥ק‬ ่ࡱ֥࢖Ч, ๝ൈ෱ࡼᄍྸൻԛФཨ‫ٮ‬. ई২টඪ, ն‫؟‬ඔбหлࢌၞन൞ҐႨࢤ൳ᆀ֥‫܄‬ᄂࡆૡ‫ބ‬඲ ᄂࢳૡ, ၹ‫ط‬ఃؓႋ֥ P2PKH (Pay to public key hash) ѓሙࢌၞ࢖Чᇏ֥෭‫࢖ק‬Чࠧ൞൐Ⴈࢤ൳ᆀ ֥‫܄‬ᄂൌགྷቅᆸൻԛ‫ିۿ‬, ‫ط‬൐Ⴈ඲ᄂؓႋ֥ඔሳ ద଀টࡆၛࢳ෭[19]. бหл࢖Ч༢๤ॖၛൌགྷਲࠃ֥ࢌၞ॥ᇅ. ২ ೂ, ๙‫קܿݖ‬ଖ۱ൈࡗ‫( ؍‬ೂ၂ᇛ) ቔູࢳ෭่ࡱ, ॖၛൌགྷ࿼ൈᆦ‫ ;ڱ‬๙‫ࢤקܿݖ‬൳ᆀ‫ބ‬քЌದсྶ ‫܋‬๝඲ᄂద଀Ҍିᆦ஥၂гбหл, ॖၛൌགྷքЌ ࢌၞ; ๙‫ݖ‬ഡ࠹၂ᇕॖ۴ऌຓ҆ྐ༏ჷ‫ނ‬Ұଖ‫ੱۀ‬ ൙ࡱ൞‫ؿڎ‬ള֥ܿᄵѩቔູࢳ෭࢖Ч‫ڸ‬ሢᄝ၂‫ק‬ඔ ਈ֥бหлࢌၞഈ, ࠧॖൌགྷѰґ‫ބ‬ყҩ൧ӆ֩ো ྘֥ႋႨ; ๙‫ݖ‬ഡ‫ ק‬N ۱඲ᄂࠢ‫ކ‬ᇏᇀഒิ‫ ܂‬M ۱඲ᄂҌॖࢳ෭, ॖൌགྷ M − N ྘‫؟‬ᇗద଀, ࠧ N ۱మᄝࢤ൳ᆀᇏᇀഒႵ M ۱๝ၩద଀Ҍॖൌགྷᆦ ‫ڱ‬. ‫؟‬ᇗద଀ॖܼٗႋႨႿ‫܄‬ඳथҦaҍༀࡓ‫׼‬aᇏ ࢺքЌമᇀ၌Ӂ‫ٳ‬஥֩ӆࣟ. бหл࢖Ч൞ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ֥Ԡྙ, բളਔದো৥ ൎഈֻ၂ᇕॖщӱ֥ಆ౯ྟࠊл. ಖ‫ط‬, бหл࢖ Ч༢๤൞٤๭ਲປС֥, ఃᇏ҂թᄝ‫گ‬ᄖ࿖ߌ‫ބ‬ੀ ॥ᇅ, ᆃᄝ෥ാ၂‫ק‬ਲࠃྟ֥๝ൈି‫ࠞܔ‬նֹࢆ֮ ‫گ‬ᄖྟ‫ބ‬҂ಒ‫ྟק‬, ѩି‫ܔ‬х૧ၹ໭ཋ࿖ߌ֩આࠠ ᅉ֐‫ط‬ᄯӮऋध‫ڛ‬ༀ֩ো྘֥νಆྟ‫ࠌ۾‬. ູิۚ ࢖Ч༢๤֥ਲࠃྟ‫ބ‬ॖঔᅚྟ, ࿹࣮ᆀၘࣜӇ൫ᄝ бหлླྀၰᆭഈ‫ླྀ֥ྍࡆן‬ၰ, ၛડቀᄝ౵ॶ৽ഈ ‫ࡹܒ‬۷ູ‫گ‬ᄖ֥ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ֥ླ౰. ၛ෾٘ၘࣜ࿹‫ؿ‬ ԛ၂ส๭ਲປС֥࢖Чე࿽, Ⴈ޼ॖࠎႿၛ෾٘‫ܒ‬ ࡹ಩ၩ‫گ‬ᄖ‫ࣚބ‬ಒ‫ק‬ၬ֥ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿაಀᇏྏ߄ႋႨ, Ֆ‫ࠎູط‬Ⴟ౵ॶ৽‫ࡹܒ‬ॖщӱ֥ࣁವაഠ߶༢๤‫׍‬ ‫ק‬ਔࠎԤ[4]. 3 ౵ॶ৽֥ႋႨӆࣟ Ⴎ౵ॶ৽‫׿‬ห֥࠯ඌഡ࠹ॖ࡮, ౵ॶ৽༢๤ऎ Ⴕ‫҃ٳ‬ൔۚ಺Ⴥթԥaൈ྽ඔऌ౏҂ॖ՞‫ބڿ‬ເᄯa ಀᇏྏ߄ྐႨaሱ‫׮‬ᆳྛ֥ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿaνಆ‫ބ‬ႅ඲ Ќ޹֩ཁᇷ֥หׄ, ᆃ൐֤౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ҂ࣇॖၛӮ ‫ۿ‬ႋႨႿඔሳࡆૡࠊлਵთ, ๝ൈᄝࣜ࠶aࣁವ‫ބ‬ഠ ߶༢๤ᇏ္թᄝܼ֥ٗႋႨӆࣟ. ۴ऌ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ ႋႨ֥གྷሑ, Ч໓ࡼ౵ॶ৽ଢభ֥ᇶေႋႨ੆๤ֹ ݂ବູඔሳࠊлaඔऌթԥaඔऌ࡫ᆣaࣁವࢌၞa ሧӁܵ৘‫ބ‬࿊ई๧ௐ‫ੂ܋‬۱ӆࣟ, ѩ‫ۀ‬ඍԢඔሳࠊ лຓ֥໴նႋႨӆࣟၛࠣ౵ॶ৽֥೘ᇕႋႨଆൔ. ඔऌթԥ: ౵ॶ৽֥ۚ಺Ⴥթԥ (ૄ۱ࢫׄթԥ ၂‫ٺ‬ඔऌ)aಀᇏྏ߄aۚνಆྟ‫ބ‬ႅ඲Ќ޹֩หׄ ൐ఃหљൡ‫ކ‬թԥ‫ބ‬Ќ޹ᇗေႅ඲ඔऌ, ၛх૧ၹ ᇏྏ߄ࠏ‫ܒ‬ᄥ൳‫ࠇࠌ۾‬ಃཋܵ৘҂֒‫ط‬ᄯӮ֥նܿ ଆඔऌ‫ש‬ാࠇ྄੝. აбหлࢌၞඔऌোරֹ, ಩ၩ ඔऌनॖ๙‫ݗݖ‬༐ᄎෘളӮཌྷႋ֥ Merkle ඎѩյ Ї࠺ೆ౵ॶ৽, ๙‫ݖ‬༢๤ଽ‫֥ׄࢫ്܋‬ෘ৯‫ބ‬٤ؓ ӫࡆૡ࠯ඌটЌᆣνಆྟ. ౵ॶ৽֥‫؟‬ᇗద଀࠯ඌ ॖၛਲࠃ஥ᇂඔऌ٠໙֥ಃཋ, ২ೂсྶࠆ֤ᆷ‫ ק‬5 ۱ದᇏ 3 ۱ದ֥඲ᄂ൱ಃҌॖࠆ֤٠໙ಃཋ. ଢభ, ০Ⴈ౵ॶ৽টթԥ۱ದࡲूඔऌ (ೂ‫׈‬ሰѨ৥aࠎၹ ඔऌ֩) ൞ࠞऎభ֥ࣟႋႨਵთ, Վຓթԥ۲োᇗေ ‫׈‬ሰ໓ࡱ (൪௔a๭ோa໓Ч֩) ମᇀದোනམ‫ބ‬ၩ ്္֩Ⴕ၂‫ק‬ႋႨॢࡗ[7]. ඔऌ࡫ᆣ: ౵ॶ৽ඔऌջႵൈࡗՄaႮ‫ࢫ്܋‬ ׄ‫܋‬๝ဒᆣ‫࠺ބ‬੣a҂ॖ՞‫ބڿ‬ເᄯ, ᆃུหׄ൐֤ ౵ॶ৽ॖܼٗႋႨႿ۲োඔऌ‫܄‬ᆣ‫ބ‬ബ࠹ӆࣟ. ২ ೂ, ౵ॶ৽ॖၛႥֹࣲνಆթԥႮᆟ‫֥ؿނܒࠏک‬ ۲োྸॖᆣa֨࠺іaᆳᅶaᆣૼaಪᆣ‫࠺ބ‬੣֩, ѩॖᄝ಩ၩൈࡗׄٚьֹᆣૼଖཛඔऌ֥թᄝྟ‫ބ‬ ၂‫ק‬ӱ؇ഈ֥ᆇൌྟ. Їও֣౗ᄝଽ֥‫ࡅ؟‬ህြബ ࠹‫܄‬ඳၘࣜ҆ඇ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌটϺᇹఃബ࠹ഽൌགྷ֮ ӮЧ‫ֹིۚބ‬ൌൈബ࠹; Factom ‫܄‬ඳᄵࠎႿ౵ॶ৽
10. 490 ሱ‫߄׮‬࿐Б 42 ज ഡ࠹ਔ၂สሙಒ֥aॖ‫ނ‬Ұ֥‫ބ‬҂ॖ۷‫֥ڿ‬ബ࠹‫܄‬ ᆣੀӱაٚ‫[م‬26]. ࣁವࢌၞ: ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌაࣁವ൧ӆႋႨႵ٤ӈ ֥ۚఔ‫ކ‬؇. ౵ॶ৽ॖၛᄝಀᇏྏ߄༢๤ᇏሱ‫ֹؿ‬ ӁളྐႨ, ି‫ࡹܔ‬৫໭ᇏྏࠏ‫ྐܒ‬ႨМ඀֥ࣁವ൧ ӆ, Ֆ‫ط‬ᄝ‫ޓ‬նӱ؇ഈൌགྷਔ “ࣁವຂૂ”, ᆃֻؓ ೘ٚᆦ‫ڱ‬aሧࣁກܵ֩թᄝᇏࢺࠏ‫֥ܒ‬അြଆൔট ඪ൞‫֥ྟڭ׀‬э۪; ᄝ޺৳ຩࣁವਵთ, ౵ॶ৽หљ ൡ‫ࠇކ‬ᆀၘࣜႋႨႿ‫ܢ‬ಃᇙԔaP2P ຩ઎ࢹվ‫޺ބ‬ ৳ຩЌག֩അြଆൔ; ᆣಊ‫ބ‬ၿྛြༀ္൞౵ॶ৽ ֥ᇗေႋႨਵთ, Ԯ๤ᆣಊࢌၞླေࣜ‫ݖ‬ᇏနࢲෘ ࠏ‫ܒ‬aၿྛaᆣಊ‫܄‬ඳ‫ࢌބ‬ၞ෮֩ᇏྏࠏ‫؟֥ܒ‬ᇗ ླྀ‫ט‬, ‫ط‬০Ⴈ౵ॶ৽ሱ‫߄׮‬ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ‫ބ‬ॖщӱ֥ห ׄ, ି‫ࠞܔ‬նֹࢆ֮ӮЧ‫ੱིۚิބ‬, х૧َ෫֥ᇏ ྏ߄ౢෘࢌ۩‫ݖ‬ӱ, ൌགྷٚьॹࢮ֥ࣁವӁ௖ࢌၞ; ๝ൈ, ౵ॶ৽‫ބ‬бหл֥ࠧൈ֞ᅫ֥หׄॖ൐֤ၿ ྛൌགྷб SWIFT ս઒ุ༢۷ູॹࢮaࣜ࠶‫ބ‬νಆ ֥ॴ࣢ሇᅬ; ᆃ္൞ଢభ R3CEV ‫ބ‬ବථղक़֩۲ նၿྛaᆣಊഅ‫ࣁބ‬ವࠏ‫ܒ‬ཌྷ࠿๧ೆ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ࿹ ‫֥ؿ‬ᇗေჰၹ. ሧӁܵ৘: ౵ॶ৽ᄝሧӁܵ৘ਵთ֥ႋႨऎႵ ܼٗభࣟ, ି‫ܔ‬ൌགྷႵྙ‫ބ‬໭ྙሧӁ֥ಒಃa൱ಃ‫ބ‬ ൌൈࡓ॥. ؓႿ໭ྙሧӁটඪ, ࠎႿൈࡗՄ࠯ඌ‫ބ‬҂ ॖ՞‫֩ڿ‬หׄ, ॖၛࡼ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌႋႨႿᆩ്Ӂಃ Ќ޹aთ଀ܵ৘aࠒ‫ܵٳ‬৘֩ਵთ; ‫ؓط‬ႵྙሧӁট ඪ, ๙‫ކࢲݖ‬໾৳ຩ࠯ඌູሧӁഡ࠹ື၂ѓ്ѩ҆ ඇ֞౵ॶ৽ഈ, ି‫ྙܔ‬Ӯ “ඔሳᇆିሧӁ”, ൌགྷࠎ Ⴟ౵ॶ৽֥‫҃ٳ‬ൔሧӁ൱ಃ‫ބ‬॥ᇅ. ২ೂ, ๙‫ؓݖ‬ٜ ໬aӚਇ֩ൌ໾ሧӁ֥౵ॶ৽ૡᄂ൱ಃ, ॖၛࠎႿห ‫ק‬ಃཋট‫ؿ‬٢‫߭ބ‬൬ሧӁ֥൐Ⴈಃ, ႵᇹႿ Airbnb ٜ֩໬ሿਧࠇӚਇሿਧ֩അြଆൔൌགྷሱ‫֥߄׮‬ሧ Ӂࢌࢤ; ๙‫ކࢲݖ‬໾৳ຩ֥ሧӁѓ࠺‫്ބ‬љ࠯ඌ, ߎ ॖၛ০Ⴈ౵ॶ৽ൌགྷਲࠃ֥‫܂‬ႋ৽ܵ৘‫ބ‬Ӂ௖ිჷ ֩‫ିۿ‬. ࿊ई๧ௐ: ๧ௐ൞౵ॶ৽࠯ඌᄝᆟᇍ൙ༀᇏ֥ սіྟႋႨ. ࠎႿ౵ॶ৽֥‫҃ٳ‬ൔ‫്܋‬ဒᆣa҂ॖ ՞‫֩ڿ‬หׄ, ॖၛ֮ӮЧֹིۚൌགྷᆟᇍ࿊ईaఒြ ‫תܢ‬๧ௐ֩ႋႨ; ๝ൈ, ౵ॶ৽္ᆦӻႨ޼۱ุؓห ‫ק‬ၰี֥๧ௐ. ২ೂ, ๙‫࠺ݖ‬੣Ⴈ޼ؓห‫ק‬൙ࡱ൞‫ڎ‬ ‫ؿ‬ള֥๧ௐ, ॖၛࡼ౵ॶ৽ႋႨႿѰґ‫ބ‬ყҩ൧ӆ ֩ӆࣟ[27]; ๙‫࠺ݖ‬੣Ⴈ޼ؓห‫ק‬Ӂ௖֥๧ௐ௟‫ٳ‬ა ࡹၰ, ॖၛൌགྷնܿଆႨ޼ᇙЇഡ࠹Ӂ௖֥ “ഠ߶ᇅ ᄯ” ଆൔ֩. ۴ऌൌ࠽ႋႨӆࣟ‫ླބ‬౰, ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌၘࣜဆ ߄ԛ೘ᇕႋႨଆൔ, ࠧ‫( ৽܋܄‬Public blockchain)a ৳ૐ৽ (Consortium blockchain) ‫ބ‬඲Ⴕ৽ (Private blockchain). ‫৽܋܄‬൞ປಆಀᇏྏ߄֥౵ॶ৽, ‫ٳ‬ ҃ൔ༢๤֥಩‫ׄࢫޅ‬नॖҕა৽ഈඔऌ֥‫؀‬ཿaဒ ᆣ‫ݖ്܋ބ‬ӱ, ѩ۴ऌః PoW ࠇ PoS ‫܊‬ངࠆ֤ཌྷ ႋ֥ࣜ࠶ࠗৣ. бหл൞‫྘ׅ֥৽܋܄‬սі. ৳ૐ৽ ᄵ൞҆‫ٳ‬ಀᇏྏ߄ (ࠇӫ‫؟‬ᇏྏ߄) ֥౵ॶ৽, ൡႨ Ⴟ‫؟‬۱ൌุ‫ܒ‬Ӯ֥ቆᆮࠇ৳ૐ, ః‫ݖ്܋‬ӱ൳֞ყ ‫ק‬ၬ֥၂ቆࢫׄ॥ᇅ, ২ೂളӮ౵ॶླေࠆ֤ 10 ۱ ყ࿊֥‫ׄࢫ്܋‬ᇏ֥ 5 ۱ࢫׄಒಪ; ඲Ⴕ৽ᄵ൞ປ ಆᇏྏ߄֥౵ॶ৽, ൡႨႿห‫֥ܒࠏק‬ଽ҆ඔऌܵ ৘აബ࠹֩, ఃཿೆಃཋႮᇏྏࠏ‫ܒ‬॥ᇅ, ‫؀ط‬౼ಃ ཋॖ൪ླ౰Ⴕ࿊ᄴྟֹؓຓष٢. ླေඪૼ֥൞, Ⴎ Ⴟಀᇏྏ߄ӱ؇҂๝, ৳ૐ৽‫ބ‬඲Ⴕ৽ॖି҂ປಆ ‫ ֻކژ‬2 ࢫิԛ֥౵ॶ৽ଆ྘, ২ೂᇏྏ߄ӱ؇ࢠ ֥ۚ౵ॶ৽ॖି҂ླေഡ࠹ࠗৣҪᇏ֥ࣜ࠶ࠗৣ֩. 4 ౵ॶ৽֥གྷթ໙ี ቔ୍ູ࣍টྖఏѩॹ෎‫ؿ‬ᅚ֥ྍ࠯ඌ, ౵ॶ৽ сಖ߶૫ਢ۲ᇕᇅჿః‫ؿ‬ᅚ֥໙ี‫ބ‬ᅰθ. Чࢫࡼ Ֆνಆaིੱaሧჷ‫ބ‬Ѱᒮඹٚ૫‫ۀ‬ඍ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ Ⴕրࢳथ֥໙ี. 4.1 νಆ໙ี νಆྟຯཽ൞౵ॶ৽ఘࣂູᆸ෮૫ਢ֥ቋᇗေ ֥໙ี. ఃᇏ, ࠎႿ PoW ‫ݖ്܋‬ӱ֥౵ॶ৽ᇶေ૫ ਢ֥൞ 51 % ‫ࠌ۾‬໙ี, ࠧࢫׄ๙‫ݖ‬ᅧ໤ಆຩӑ‫ݖ‬ 51 % ֥ෘ৯ࣼႵି৯Ӯ‫ۿ‬՞‫ބڿ‬ເᄯ౵ॶ৽ඔऌ. ၛбหлູ২, ऌ๤࠹ᇏ‫ݓ‬ն྘ঀӽ֥ෘ৯ၘᅝಆ ຩሹෘ৯֥ 60 % ၛഈ, ৘ંഈᆃུঀӽॖၛ๙‫ކݖ‬ ቔൌീ 51 % ‫ࠌ۾‬, Ֆ‫ط‬ൌགྷбหл֥චᇗᆦ‫[ڱ‬1]. ෙಖൌ࠽༢๤ᇏູᅧ໤ಆຩ 51 % ෘ৯෮ླ֥ӮЧ ๧ೆჹӑӮ‫ۿ‬ൌീ‫֥ުࠌ۾‬൬ၭ, ֌ 51 % ‫֥ࠌ۾‬ν ಆྟຯཽ൓ᇔթᄝ. ࠎႿ PoS ‫ݖ്܋‬ӱᄝ၂‫ק‬ӱ؇ ഈࢳथਔ 51 % ‫ࠌ۾‬໙ี, ֌๝ൈ္ႄೆਔ౵ॶ‫ٳ‬ҭ ൈ֥ N@S (Nothing at stake) ‫ࠌ۾‬໙ี. ࿹࣮ᆀၘ ࣜิԛ๙‫ܒݖ‬ᄯ๝ൈ၇ঠۚෘ৯‫ۚބ‬ଽթ֥ PoW ‫്܋‬ෘ‫م‬ট҆‫ࢳٳ‬थ 51 % ‫ࠌ۾‬໙ี[4], ۷ູνಆ‫ބ‬ Ⴕི֥‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅഉႵրႿ۷ࡆധೆ֥࿹࣮‫ބ‬ഡ࠹. ౵ॶ৽֥٤ؓӫࡆૡࠏᇅ္ࡼෛሢඔ࿐aૡ઒ ࿐‫࠹ބ‬ෘ࠯ඌ֥‫ؿ‬ᅚ‫ط‬э֥ᄀটᄀգ೐. ऌ‫࠹ܙ‬, ၛ ଢభ฿‫֥ݼؽފ‬ෘ৯টඪ, Ӂളбหл SHA256 ‫ݗ‬ ༐ෘ‫֥م‬၂۱‫ݗ‬༐ஷሏնჿླေ 248 ୍, ֌ෛሢਈ ሰ࠹ෘࠏ֩ྍ࠹ෘ࠯ඌ֥‫ؿ‬ᅚ, ໃট٤ؓӫࡆૡෘ ‫م‬ऎႵ၂‫֥ק‬௥ࢳॖିྟ, ᆃ္൞౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ૫ਢ ֥మᄝνಆຯཽ. ౵ॶ৽֥ႅ඲Ќ޹္թᄝνಆྟ‫ڄ‬ག. ౵ॶ৽ ༢๤ଽ۲ࢫׄѩ٤ປಆେ଀, ‫ط‬൞๙‫ݖ‬োර‫׈‬ሰႯ ࡱֹᆶֹ֥ᆶѓ് (২ೂбหл‫܄‬ᄂֹᆶ) টൌགྷඔ ऌԮൻ. ෙಖֹᆶѓ്ѩໃᆰࢤაᆇൌൗࢸ֥ದ໾ ദ‫ٺ‬ཌྷܱ৳, ֌౵ॶ৽ඔऌ൞ປಆ‫܄‬ष๩ૼ֥, ෛሢ ۲োّେ଀ദ‫ٺ‬ᆈљ࠯ඌ֥‫ؿ‬ᅚ, ൌགྷ҆‫ٳ‬ᇗׄଢ
11. 4௹ ჯႧ֩: ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ‫ؿ‬ᅚགྷሑაᅚຬ 491 ѓ֥‫്ބ໊ק‬љಯ൞Ⴕॖି֥. 4.2 ིੱ໙ี ౵ॶ৽ིੱ္൞ᇅჿఃႋႨ֥ᇗေၹ෍. ൮༵ ൞౵ॶளᅮ໙ี: ౵ॶ৽ေ౰༢๤ଽૄ۱ࢫׄЌթ ၂‫ٺ‬ඔऌС‫ٺ‬, ᆃؓႿರၭᄹӉ֥‫ݚ‬ਈඔऌթԥট ඪ൞ູࠞ঒଴֥. ၛбหлູ২, ປಆ๝҄ሱԷൗ ౵ॶᇀࣂ֥౵ॶඔऌླေჿ 60 GB թԥॢࡗ, ෙಖ ౞ਈࠩࢫׄॖ҆‫ࢳٳ‬थՎ໙ี, ֌ൡႨႿ۷նܿଆ ֥‫۽‬ြࠩࢳथٚσಯႵր࿹‫[ؿ‬28]. ఃՑ൞ࢌၞི ੱ໙ี: бหл౵ॶ৽ଢభૄ૰ࣇିԩ৘ 7 гࢌၞ, ᆃࠞնֹཋᇅਔ౵ॶ৽ᄝն‫؟‬ඔࣁವ༢๤ۚ௔ࢌၞ ӆࣟᇏ֥ႋႨ (২ೂ VISA ྐႨवૄ૰ቋ‫؟‬ॖԩ৘ 10 000 гࢌၞ)[1]; ቋު൞ࢌၞಒಪൈࡗ໙ี: бห л౵ॶളӮൈࡗູ 10 ‫ٳ‬ᇒ, ၹ‫ࢌط‬ၞಒಪൈࡗ၂Ϯ ູ 10 ‫ٳ‬ᇒ, ᆃᄝ၂‫ק‬ӱ؇ഈཋᇅਔбหлᄝཬ‫ࢌح‬ ၞ‫ބ‬ൈࡗૹ‫ࢌۋ‬ၞᇏ֥ႋႨ. 4.3 ሧჷ໙ี PoW ‫ݖ്܋‬ӱۚ؇၇ঠ౵ॶ৽ຩ઎ࢫׄ‫܊‬ང ֥ෘ৯, ᆃུෘ৯ᇶေႨႿࢳथ SHA256 ‫ݗ‬༐‫ބ‬ෛ ࠏඔෆ෬, ԢՎᆭຓѩ҂Ӂള಩‫ޅ‬ൌ࠽ഠ߶ࡎᆴ, ၹ ‫ط‬၂Ϯၩၬഈಪູᆃུෘ৯ሧჷ൞Ф “শ‫ו ”ٮ‬ਔ, ๝ൈФশ‫ߎ֥וٮ‬Ⴕնਈ֥‫׈‬৯ሧჷ. ෛሢбหл ֥ರၭ௴ࠣ‫ބ‬ህြ຋ঀഡС֥ԛགྷ, бหлള෿ಁ ၘࣜᄝሧЧ‫ބ‬ഡСٚ૫ӯགྷԛૼཁ֥फСࣩ೗෿൝, ᇯࡶӮູۚ‫֥ିݻ‬ሧЧૡࠢ྘ྛြ, ࣉ၂҄๪ཁਔ ሧჷཨ‫ݻ‬໙ี֥ᇗေྟ. ၹՎ, ೂ‫ିޅ‬Ⴕི߸ࠢ‫҃ٳ‬ ൔࢫ֥ׄຩ઎ෘ৯টࢳथൌ࠽໙ี, ൞౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ ླေࢳथ֥ᇗေ໙ี. ࿹࣮ᆀଢభၘࣜष൓Ӈ൫ࢳ थՎ໙ี, ২ೂ Primecoin (ᇉඔл) ေ౰۲ࢫׄᄝ ‫ݖ്܋‬ӱᇏᅳ֞෍ඔ֥ቋӉ৽่ (िୡν৽‫ބ‬චཟ ච৽) ‫ط‬٤໭ၩၬ֥ SHA256 ‫ݗ‬༐ᆴ[29]. ໃট֥మ ᄝ‫ؿ‬ᅚ౴൝൞ഡ࠹ྛᆭႵི֥ࢌ޺ࠏᇅট߸ऊ‫ބ‬০ Ⴈ‫҃ٳ‬ൔ‫֥ׄࢫ്܋‬ಕุᇆି, ၛ‫ڣ‬ᇹࢳथնܿଆ ֥ൌ࠽໙ี. 4.4 Ѱᒮ໙ี ౵ॶ৽ຩ઎ቔູಀᇏྏ߄֥‫҃ٳ‬ൔ༢๤, ః۲ ࢫׄᄝࢌ޺‫ݖ‬ӱᇏ҂ॖх૧ֹ߶թᄝཌྷ޺ࣩᆚა‫ކ‬ ቔ֥Ѱᒮܱ༢, ᆃᄝбหл຋ঀ‫ݖ‬ӱᇏႭູૼཁ. ๙ ӈটඪ, бหлঀӽࡗॖၛ๙‫ݖ‬ཌྷ޺‫ކ‬ቔЌӻ۲ሱ ໗‫֥ק‬൬ၭ. ಖ‫ط‬, ঀӽॖၛ๙‫ݖ‬ӫູ౵ॶࢩ਽‫۾‬ ࠌ (Block withholding attacks) ֥ٚൔa๙‫ݖ‬ເል ູؓ൭ঀӽ֥ঀ‫۽‬aཚ൳ؓ൭ঀӽ֥൬ၭ֌҂ൌ࠽ ‫܊‬ངປᆜ‫۽‬ቔਈᆣૼট‫ࠌ۾‬ః෰ঀӽ, Ֆ‫֮ؓࢆط‬ ൭ঀӽ֥൬ၭ. ೂ‫ঀݔ‬ӽཌྷ޺‫ࠌ۾‬, ᄵචٚࠆ֤֥൬ ၭनഒႿ҂‫ؓࠌ۾‬֥ٚ൬ၭ. ֒ঀӽ൬ၭ‫ݦ‬ඔડቀ ห‫ࡱ่ק‬ൈ, ᆃᇕ‫ࣩބࠌ۾‬ᆚࡼ߶ᄯӮ “౱๮঒࣢” Ѱᒮࢲअ[30]. ೂ‫ޅ‬ഡ࠹‫ކ‬৘֥Ӳ‫ݦـ‬ඔটၝᇅ٤৘ ྟࣩᆚa൐֤‫ކ‬ቔӮູᇗ‫ঀྟگ‬ӽѰᒮ֥໗‫ק‬न‫ޙ‬ ࢳ, ഉླࣉ၂҄ധೆ࿹࣮. Վຓ, ᆞೂభ໓ิ֥֞, ౵ ॶ৽‫ݖ്܋‬ӱЧᇉഈ൞ᇙЇ‫ݖ‬ӱ, ೂ‫ޅ‬ഡ࠹ࠗৣཌྷ ಸ֥‫ࠏ്܋‬ᇅ, ൐֤ಀᇏྏ߄༢๤ᇏ֥ሱ০ࢫׄି ‫ܔ‬ሱ‫ֹؿ‬ൌീ౵ॶඔऌ֥ဒᆣ‫࠺ބ‬ᅬ‫۽‬ቔ, ѩิۚ ༢๤ଽ٤৘ྟྛູ֥ӮЧၛၝᇅνಆྟ‫ބࠌ۾‬ຯཽ, ൞౵ॶ৽Ⴕրࢳथ֥ᇗေ॓࿐໙ี. 5 ࠎႿ౵ॶ৽֥ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ‫୑ۀ‬ቋᄪᄝ 1994 ୍Ⴎ࿐ᆀ Nick Szabo ิԛ, ቋԚФ‫ק‬ၬູ၂สၛඔሳྙൔ‫ק‬ၬ֥ӵ ୶, Їও‫ކ‬ჿҕაٚॖၛᄝഈ૫ᆳྛᆃུӵ୶֥ླྀ ၰ, ఃഡ࠹Ԛᇓ൞༐ຬ๙‫ࡼݖ‬ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿଽᇂ֞໾৘ ൌุটԷᄯ۲ᇕਲࠃॖ॥֥ᇆିሧӁ. ႮႿ࠹ෘ൭ ‫֥؍‬ઋު‫ބ‬ႋႨӆ֥ࣟಌാ, ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿѩໃ൳֞࿹ ࣮ᆀ֥ܼܱٗᇿ. ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥ԛགྷᇗྍ‫ק‬ၬਔᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ. ᇆି ‫ކ‬ჿ൞౵ॶ৽֥‫ܒྏނ‬Ӯေ෍ (‫ކ‬ჿҪ), ൞Ⴎ൙ࡱ ౺‫֥׮‬aऎႵሑ෿֥aᄎྛᄝॖ‫گ‬ᇅ֥‫܋‬ཚ౵ॶ৽ ඔऌᅬЧഈ֥࠹ෘࠏӱ྽, ି‫ܔ‬ൌགྷᇶ‫ࠇ׮‬Ф‫֥׮‬ ԩ৘ඔऌ, ࢤ൳aԥթ‫ؿބ‬ෂࡎᆴ, ၛࠣ॥ᇅ‫ܵބ‬৘ ۲ো৽ഈᇆିሧӁ֩‫ିۿ‬. ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿቔູ၂ᇕళೆ ൔӱ྽߄‫ކ‬ჿ, ॖၛଽᇂᄝ಩‫ޅ‬౵ॶ৽ඔऌaࢌၞa Ⴕྙࠇ໭ྙሧӁഈ, ྙӮॖщӱ॥ᇅ֥ೈࡱ‫ק‬ၬ֥ ༢๤a൧ӆ‫ބ‬ሧӁ. ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ҂ࣇູԮ๤ࣁವሧӁ ֥‫ྛؿ‬aࢌၞaԷᄯ‫ܵބ‬৘ิ‫܂‬ਔԷྍྟ֥ࢳथٚ σ, ๝ൈି‫ܔ‬ᄝഠ߶༢๤ᇏ֥ሧӁܵ৘a‫ކ‬๝ܵ৘a ࡓܵᆳ‫֩م‬൙ༀᇏ‫ߨؿ‬ᇗေቔႨ. ऎุඪট, ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ൞၂ቆ౦ࣟ—ႋؓ྘֥ӱ ྽߄ܿᄵ‫ބ‬આࠠ, ൞҆ඇᄝ౵ॶ৽ഈ֥ಀᇏྏ߄aॖ ྐ‫܋‬ཚ֥ӱ྽ս઒. ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ๝ဢऎႵ౵ॶ৽ඔऌ ֥၂Ϯหᆘ, ೂ‫҃ٳ‬ൔ࠺੣aթԥ‫ބ‬ဒᆣ, ҂ॖ՞‫ڿ‬ ‫ބ‬ເᄯ֩. దඇ‫ކ‬ჿ֥۲ҕაٚࣼ‫ކ‬ჿଽಸaິჿ ่ࡱaິჿᄳ಩‫ބ‬ຓ҆‫ނ‬ҰඔऌჷղӮ၂ᇁ, сေൈ ࡟Ұ‫ބ‬ҩ൫‫ކ‬ჿս઒ၛಒЌ໭༂ު, ၛᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ֥ ྙൔ҆ඇᄝ౵ॶ৽ഈ, ࠧॖ҂၇ঠ಩‫ޅ‬ᇏྏࠏ‫ֹܒ‬ ሱ‫߄׮‬սі۲దඇٚᆳྛ‫ކ‬ჿ. ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ֥ॖщӱ หྟ൐֤దඇٚॖၛᄹࡆ಩ၩ‫گ‬ᄖ่֥ॻ. ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ֥ᄎቔࠏ৘ೂ๭ 5 ෮ൕ: ๙ӈ౦ঃ༯, ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿࣜ۲ٚదඇު, ၛӱ྽ս઒֥ྙൔ‫ڸ‬ሢᄝ ౵ॶ৽ඔऌ (২ೂ၂гбหлࢌၞ) ഈ, ࣜ P2P ຩ ઎ԮѬ‫ׄࢫބ‬ဒᆣު࠺ೆ౵ॶ৽֥ห‫ק‬౵ॶᇏ. ᇆ ି‫ކ‬ჿ‫ٿ‬ልਔყ‫ק‬ၬ֥೏‫ۄ‬ሑ෿ࠣሇߐܿᄵaԨ‫ؿ‬ ‫ކ‬ჿᆳྛ֥౦ࣟ (ೂ֞ղห‫ק‬ൈࡗࠇ‫ؿ‬ളห‫ק‬൙ࡱ ֩)aห‫ק‬౦ࣟ༯֥ႋؓྛ‫֩׮‬. ౵ॶ৽ॖൌൈࡓ॥ ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ֥ሑ෿, ѩ๙‫ނݖ‬Ұຓ҆ඔऌჷaಒಪડቀ ห‫ק‬Ԩ‫ࠃࠗުࡱ่ؿ‬ѩᆳྛ‫ކ‬ჿ.
12. 492 ሱ‫߄׮‬࿐Б 42 ज ๭ 5 ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ֥ᄎቔࠏ৘ Fig. 5 The rationale of smart contracts ౵ॶ৽‫ބ‬ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿႵູܼࠞখ֥ႋႨӆࣟ. ২ ೂ, ޺৳ຩࣁವਵთ֥‫ܢ‬ಃᇙԔࠇ P2P ຩ઎ࢹվ֩ അြଆൔॖၛ๙‫ݖ‬౵ॶ৽‫ބ‬ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿࡆၛൌགྷ. Ԯ ๤ٚൔ൞๙‫ܢݖ‬ಃᇙԔࠇ P2P ࢹվ֥ࢌၞ෮ࠇຩ ઎௜෻ቔູᇏྏࠏ‫ܒ‬ປӮሧࣁଟࠢaܵ৘‫ބ‬๧ሧ, ൌ ࠽Ҡቔ‫ݖ‬ӱᇏಸၞԛགྷၹᇏྏࠏ‫ྐ֥ܒ‬Ⴈಌാ‫֝ط‬ ᇁ֥ሧࣁ‫ڄ‬ག. ০Ⴈᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ, ᆃུ‫ିۿ‬नॖၛ‫ٿ‬ል ᄝಀᇏྏ߄ॖྐ֥౵ॶ৽ഈሱ‫׮‬ᆳྛ. ౵ॶ৽ॖ࠺ ੣ૄ၂гವሧ, ֒Ӯ‫ۿ‬ղ֞ห‫ק‬ವሧ‫ح‬؇ൈ࠹ෘૄ ۱๧ሧದ֥‫ܢ‬ಃ‫حٺ‬, ࠇᄝ၂‫؍‬ൈࡗଽໃղ֞ವሧ ‫ح‬؇ൈሱ‫ࡼ׮‬ሧࣁ๼ߎ۳๧ሧದ. ᄜೂ, ๙‫ࡼݖ‬ٜ໬ ‫ބ‬Ӛਇ֩ൌุሧӁࣉྛ٤ؓӫࡆૡ, ѩళೆ‫ݣ‬Ⴕห ‫ק‬٠໙॥ᇅܿᄵ֥ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿު҆ඇᄝ౵ॶ৽ഈ, ൐ Ⴈᆀ‫ކژ‬ห‫֥ק‬٠໙ಃཋࠇᆳྛห‫ק‬Ҡቔ (ೂ‫)ॻڱ‬ ުࣼॖ൐ႨᆃུሧӁ, ᆃି‫ܔ‬Ⴕིࢳथٜ໬ࠇӚਇ ሿਧഅြଆൔᇏሧӁࢌࢤ‫ބ‬൐Ⴈྸॖٚ૫֥๥ׄ. ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿऎႵሱᇍaሱቀ‫ބ‬ಀᇏྏ߄֩หᆘ. ሱ ᇍіൕ‫ކ‬ჿ၂֊ఓ‫߶ࣼ׮‬ሱ‫׮‬ᄎྛ, ‫ط‬҂ླေః෰ దඇٚࣉྛ಩‫ۄޅ‬ყ; ሱቀᄵၩ໅ሢ‫ކ‬ჿି‫ܔ‬๙‫ݖ‬ ิ‫ڛ܂‬ༀࠇ‫ྛؿ‬ሧӁটࠆ౼ሧࣁ, ѩᄝླေൈ൐Ⴈ ᆃུሧࣁ; ಀᇏྏ߄ᄵၩ໅ሢᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ൞Ⴎಀᇏྏ ߄թԥ‫ބ‬ဒᆣ֥ӱ྽ս઒‫ط‬٤ᇏྏ߄ൌุটЌᅰᆳ ྛ֥‫ކ‬ჿ, ିᄝ‫ޓ‬նӱ؇ഈЌᆣ‫ކ‬ჿ֥‫܄‬௜‫܄ބ‬ᆞ ྟ[1]. ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿؓႿ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌটඪऎႵᇗေ֥ၩၬ. ၂ٚ૫, ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ൞౵ॶ৽֥ࠗࠃఖ, ູ࣡෿ָ֥ Ҫ౵ॶ৽ඔऌ‫ڮ‬Ⴭਔਲࠃॖщӱ֥ࠏᇅ‫ބ‬ෘ‫م‬, ѩ ູ‫ࡹܒ‬౵ॶ৽ 2.0 ‫ ބ‬3.0 ൈս֥ॖщӱࣁವ༢๤ა ഠ߶༢๤‫ק׍‬ਔࠎԤ; ਸ਼၂ٚ૫, ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ֥ሱ‫׮‬ ߄‫ބ‬ॖщӱหྟ൐ఃॖ‫ٿ‬ል‫҃ٳ‬ൔ౵ॶ৽༢๤ᇏ۲ ࢫ֥ׄ‫گ‬ᄖྛູ, Ӯູ౵ॶ৽‫ܒ‬Ӯ֥ྴ୅ൗࢸᇏ֥ ೈࡱս৘ࠏఖದ, ᆃႵᇹႿ՜ࣉ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌᄝ۲ো ‫҃ٳ‬ൔದ‫۽‬ᇆି༢๤ᇏ֥ႋႨ, ൐֤ࠎႿ౵ॶ৽࠯ ඌ‫ࡹܒ‬۲োಀᇏྏ߄ႋႨ (Decentralized application, Dapp)aಀᇏྏ߄ሱᇍቆᆮ (Decentralized autonomous organization, DAO)aಀᇏྏ߄ሱᇍ‫܄‬ඳ (Decentralized autonomous corporation, DAC) മ ᇀಀᇏྏ߄ሱᇍഠ߶ (Decentralized autonomous society, DAS) Ӯູॖି. ࣼགྷሑ‫ط‬࿽, ౵ॶ৽‫ބ‬ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ࠯ඌ֥ᇶေ‫ؿ‬ ᅚ౴൝൞Ⴎሱ‫߄׮‬ཟᇆି߄ٚཟဆ߄. གྷթ֥۲ো ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿࠣఃႋႨ֥Чᇉઆࠠն‫؟‬ಯ൞۴ऌყ‫ק‬ ၬӆ֥ࣟ “IF-THEN” ো྘่֥ࡱཙႋܿᄵ, ି‫ܔ‬ ડቀଢభሱ‫ࢌ߄׮‬ၞ‫ބ‬ඔऌԩ৘֥ླ౰. ໃট֥ᇆ ି‫ކ‬ჿႋऎС۴ऌໃᆩӆ֥ࣟ “WHAT-IF” ๷ဆa ࠹ෘൌဒ‫ބ‬၂‫ק‬ӱ؇ഈ֥ሱᇶथҦ‫ିۿ‬, Ֆ‫ط‬ൌགྷ Ⴎଢభ “ሱ‫ކ ”߄׮‬ჿཟᆇᆞ֥ “ᇆି” ‫ކ‬ჿ֥٦ ᄁ[31−32]. 6 ౵ॶ৽౺‫֥׮‬௜ྛഠ߶ ޺৳ຩ୍࣍ট֥࿡૒‫ؿ‬ᅚࠣఃა໾৘ൗࢸ֥ധ ؇ᯒ‫ކ‬ა఼৯ّঌ, ၘࣜ۴Чྟֹ‫ڿ‬эਔགྷսഠ߶ ֥ളӁaളࠃაܵ৘थҦଆൔ, ྙӮਔགྷൌ໾৘ൗࢸ – ྴ୅ຩ઎ॢࡗࣅૡᯒ‫ކ‬aྴൌ޺‫ླྀބ׮‬๝ဆ߄֥ ௜ྛഠ߶ॢࡗ, բളਔ “޺৳ຩ +” ‫۽ބ‬ြ 4.0 ֩၂ ༢ਙ‫ࡅݓ‬ᅞ੻. ໃটഠ߶֥‫ؿ‬ᅚ౴൝ᄵсࡼՖ໾৘ + ຩ઎֥ CPS ൌ࠽ൗࢸ (Cyber-physical systems, CPS) ሼཟࣚപҪ૫֥ದ‫۽‬ൗࢸ, ྙӮ໾৘ + ຩ ઎ + ದ‫֥۽‬ದ–ࠏ–໾၂ุ߄֥೘ჭᯒ‫ކ‬༢๤, ӫູ ഠ߶໾৘ྐ༏༢๤ (Cyber-physical-social systems, CPSS). ଢభ, ࠎႿ CPSS ֥௜ྛഠ߶ၘགྷ؊ୂ, ః ‫ބྏނ‬Чᇉหᆘ൞ྴൌ޺‫׮‬ა௜ྛဆ߄[33]. ౵ॶ৽൞ൌགྷ CPSS ௜ྛഠ߶֥ࠎԤࡏ‫ܒ‬ᆭ၂, ఃᇶေ‫܊‬ང൞ູ‫҃ٳ‬ൔഠ߶༢๤‫҃ٳބ‬ൔದ‫۽‬ᇆି ࿹࣮ิ‫܂‬ਔ၂สྛᆭႵི֥ಀᇏྏ߄֥ඔऌࢲ‫ܒ‬a ࢌ޺ࠏᇅ‫࠹ބ‬ෘଆൔ, ѩູൌགྷ௜ྛഠ߶‫ק׍‬ਔࡔ ൌ֥ඔऌࠎԤ‫ྐބ‬ႨࠎԤ. ࣼඔऌࠎԤ‫ط‬࿽, ܵ৘ ࿐ࡅι֣޿պૼᄻඪ‫ݖ‬: Ԣਔഈּ, ෮Ⴕದсྶၛඔ ऌඪ߅. ಖ‫ط‬ᄝᇏྏ߄ഠ߶༢๤ᇏ, ඔऌ๙ӈᅧ໤ ᄝᆟ‫ބک‬ն྘ఒြ֩ “ഒඔದ” ൭ᇏ, ູഒඔದ “ඪ ߅”, ః‫܄‬ᆞྟaಃຯྟമᇀνಆྟॖି‫׻‬໭‫م‬Ќᆣ. ౵ॶ৽ඔऌᄵ๙‫ۚݖ‬؇಺Ⴥ֥‫҃ٳ‬ൔࢫׄթԥ, ᅧ ໤ᄝ “෮Ⴕದ” ൭ᇏ, ି‫ܔ‬ቓ֞ᆇᆞ֥ “ඔऌ૶ᇶ”. ࣼྐႨࠎԤ‫ط‬࿽, ᇏྏ߄ഠ߶༢๤ၹఃۚ؇‫۽‬ӱ‫گ‬ ᄖྟ‫ބ‬ഠ߶‫گ‬ᄖྟ‫ط‬҂ॖх૧ֹ߶թᄝ “ଏ‫ؘ‬༢๤” ֥หྟ, ࠧ҂ಒ‫ྟק‬a‫؟‬ဢྟ‫گބ‬ᄖྟ, ഠ߶༢๤ᇏ ֥ᇏྏࠏ‫ܿބܒ‬ᄵᇅ‫ק‬ᆀॖି߶ၹ۱ุ০ၭ‫ط‬ԛགྷ ാྐྛູ; ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌႵᇹႿൌགྷೈࡱ‫ק‬ၬ֥ഠ߶ ༢๤, ఃࠎЧ৘୑ࣼ൞ัԢᇏྏ߄ࠏ‫ܒ‬aࡼ҂ॖყ ҩ֥ྛູၛᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ֥ӱ྽߄ս઒ྙൔิభ҆ඇ‫ބ‬ ‫߄ܥ‬ᄝ౵ॶ৽ඔऌᇏ, ൙ު҂ॖເᄯ‫ބ‬՞‫ڿ‬ѩሱ‫׮‬ ߄ᆳྛ, Ֆ‫ط‬ᄝ၂‫ק‬ӱ؇ഈି‫“ ࡼܔ‬ଏ‫ ”ؘ‬ഠ߶༢๤ ሇ߄ູॖಆ૫ܴҳaॖᇶ‫׮‬॥ᇅaॖࣚಒყҩ֥ “୤ ‫ ”ؘ‬ഠ߶༢๤[34]. ACP (ದ‫۽‬ഠ߶ Artificial societiesa࠹ෘൌဒ
13. 4௹ ჯႧ֩: ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ‫ؿ‬ᅚགྷሑაᅚຬ 493 Computational experiments ‫ބ‬௜ྛᆳྛ Parallel execution) ٚ‫م‬൞ఘࣂູᆸ௜ྛഠ߶ܵ৘ਵთື၂ Ӯุ༢߄֥aປᆜ֥࿹࣮ॿࡏ, ൞‫گ‬ᄖྟ॓࿐ᄝྍൈ ս௜ྛഠ߶ߌ࣢༯֥આࠠ࿼ᅚ‫ބ‬Էྍ[35]. ACP ٚ‫م‬ ॖၛሱಖֹა౵ॶ৽࠯ඌཌྷࢲ‫ކ‬, ൌགྷ౵ॶ৽౺‫׮‬ ֥௜ྛഠ߶ܵ৘. ൮༵, ౵ॶ৽֥ P2P ቆຩa‫҃ٳ‬ൔ ‫ླ്ྀ܋‬ቔ‫ࠎބ‬Ⴟ‫܊‬ང֥ࣜ࠶ࠗৣ֩ࠏᇅЧദࣼ൞‫ٳ‬ ҃ൔഠ߶༢๤֥ሱಖࡹଆ, ఃᇏૄ۱ࢫׄ‫ࡼ׻‬ቔູ ‫҃ٳ‬ൔ༢๤ᇏ֥၂۱ሱᇶ‫ބ‬ሱᇍ֥ᇆିุ (Agent). ෛሢ౵ॶ৽ള෿ุ༢֥ປ೿, ౵ॶ৽۲‫ބׄࢫ്܋‬ ರၭ‫گ‬ᄖაሱᇍ֥ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿࡼ๙‫ݖ‬ҕა۲ᇕྙൔ֥ Dapp, ྙӮห‫ק‬ቆᆮྙൔ֥ DAC ‫ ބ‬DAO, ቋᇔྙ Ӯ DAS, ࠧ ACP ᇏ֥ದ‫۽‬ഠ߶[36]. ఃՑ, ᇆି‫ކ‬ჿ ֥ॖщӱหྟ൐֤౵ॶ৽ॖࣉྛ۲ᇕ “WHAT-IF” ো྘֥ྴ୅ൌဒഡ࠹aӆࣟ๷ဆ‫ݔࢲބ‬௟‫ܙ‬, ๙‫ݖ‬ᆃ ᇕ࠹ෘൌဒ‫ݖ‬ӱࠆ֤ѩሱ‫϶ࠇ׮‬ሱ‫ֹ׮‬ᆳྛቋႪथ Ҧ. ቋު, ౵ॶ৽ა໾৳ຩ֩ཌྷࢲ‫ྙކ‬Ӯ֥ᇆିሧ Ӂ൐֤৳๙གྷൌ໾৘ൗࢸ‫ྴބ‬୅ຩ઎ॢࡗӮູॖି, ѩॖ๙‫ݖ‬ᆇൌ‫ބ‬ದ‫۽‬ഠ߶༢๤֥ྴൌ޺‫ބ׮‬௜ྛ‫ט‬ ཾൌགྷഠ߶ܵ৘‫ބ‬थҦ֥ླྀ๝Ⴊ߄. ҂଴ყ࡮, ໃট གྷൌ໾৘ൗࢸ֥ൌุሧӁ‫৽ູ࠺֨׻‬ഈᇆିሧӁ֥ ൈީ, ࣼ൞౵ॶ৽౺‫֥׮‬௜ྛഠ߶֞টᆭൈ. 7 ࢲඏე ෛሢၛбหлູսі֥ඔሳࡆૡࠊл఼֥൝ᗌ ఏ, ྍྖ֥౵ॶ৽࠯ඌᇯࡶӮູ࿐ඌࢸ‫ބ‬Ӂြࢸ֥ ಣׄ࿹࣮ज़ี. ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥ಀᇏྏ߄ྐႨa҂ॖ՞ ‫ބڿ‬ॖщӱ֩หׄ, ൐ఃᄝඔሳࡆૡࠊлaࣁವ‫ބ‬ഠ ߶༢๤ᇏႵܼ֥ٗႋႨభࣟ. ಖ‫ط‬, აயѱ‫ؿ‬ᅚ֥౵ ॶ৽അြႋႨཌྷб, ౵ॶ৽֥ࠎԤ৘ં‫࠯ބ‬ඌ࿹࣮ ಯԩႿఏ҄ࢨ‫؍‬, ྸ‫؟‬۷ູЧᇉྟ֥aؓ౵ॶ৽Ӂြ ‫ؿ‬ᅚᇀܱᇗေ֥॓࿐໙ีታր࿹࣮۵ࣉ. Ч໓༢๤ ֹ൸৘ਔ౵ॶ৽࠯ඌ֥ࠎЧჰ৘a࠯ඌaٚ‫م‬აႋ Ⴈ, ၛ௹ູໃট࿹࣮ิ‫܂‬Ⴕၭ֥ఓ‫ؿ‬აࢹ࡫. References 1 Swan M. Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy. 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